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Integral Humanism – Lectures of Deendayal Upadhyaya – 1

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was born on Sept. 25, 1916, in a village Nagla Chandrabhan, Near Mathura in Uttar Pradesh. He passed his Matriculation standing first class, first in the Ajmer Board Examinations, winning two gold medals. He again won two gold medals in Intermediate examination securing first rank. He did his B.A. in mathematics in first class. Panditji joined the RSS in 1937 as one of the first few Swayamsevaks and rose to be its Joint Provincial Pracharak. He joined the Jana Sangh in 1952 and was appointed its General Secretary, which post he retained till he became the President of the Party in 1967. After the death of Dr.Syama Prasad Mookherji, Panditji shouldered the responsibility of building up the party and he achieved a remarkable success in this onerous task. Pandit Upadhyaya edited PANCHJANYA (Weekly) and SWADESH (Daily) from Lucknow. He has also written a drama CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA in Hindi, and later wrote a Hindi biography of SHANKARACHARYA. He translated Marathi biography of Dr.Hedgewar, the founder of RSS. His death in tragic circumstances on Feb. 11, 1968 is an irreplaceable loss to the country.

Integral Humanism was first presented by Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya in the form of four lectures delivered in Mumbai on April 22-25, 1965.

Integral Humanism

C H A P T E R – 1

I am asked to present my thoughts on the subject of “Integral Humanism” in a series of talks beginning this evening. Last January at Vijayawada, Bharatiya Jana Sangh adopted the statement of “Principles & Policies” in which ‘Integral Humanism’ has also been accepted. There have been scattered discussions here and there on the subject. It is necessary that we consider Integral Humanism in all its aspects. So long as the country was under the yoke of the British rule, all the movements and policies in the country had one principal ‘aim to drive out the foreign rulers and to achieve independence’. But what would be the face of the new Bharat after independence? In which direction were we to advance? These questions were precisely thought out. It would not be correct to say that no thought was devoted to these aspects. There were people who even at that time had considered these questions. Gandhiji himself had set out his idea of the independent Bharat in his book “Hind Swaraj”. Prior to this Lokmanya Tilak discussed the philosophical basis of the rejuvenation of Bharat in his book ‘Gita Rahasya’. He gave a comparative discussion of various schools of thought current all over the world at that time.

Apart from these, the Congress and other political parties adopted various resolutions from time to time which contain references to this subject. However the subject requires much more serious study than was devoted to it at that time. It did not attract serious attention at that time because everyone believed it was more important to think of ways to drive out the British and the other things could be discussed later on. It did not seem right to waste time in internal discussions while the foreign rule continued. Hence even if there might have been difference in views, they were shelved for the time being. As a result, even those who held the view that socialism should be the basis of the future Bharat, worked inside the Congress as a socialist group. They did attempt to form as a separate party as such. The revolutionaries too, were working independence in their own way. All were agreed, however, that the foremost task was to gain independence. Having attained Independence, the question naturally ought to have occurred to us, “Now that we independent, what shall be the direction of our progress?” But is amazing that serious thought has not been to this question and today even after seventeen years independence we cannot say that a definite direction been decided upon.

 Whither Bharat

From time to time, Congressmen or others have declared Welfare State, Socialism, and Liberalism etc. as their aims. Slogans have been raised. But these ideology slogans attached little significance to the philosophies, apart from the slogans. I am saying this on the basis of personal discussions. A leading gentleman once suggested during a conversation that a joint front should be for against Congress, whereby a good fight can be given. Nowadays, political parties adopt this strategy. So, it was surprising to put forward this suggestion. However, naturally, I asked, “What programme shall we adopt? If such a joint front is formed some idea of the programme is essential. What will be our economic policy? What will our foreign policy? These questions should also be broadly tackled.”

“Do not worry about it. Whatever you like you can adopt. We are ready to support, anything from extreme Marxist to downright capitalist program.” The reply came as if this was natural. He had no difficulty in adopting any programme. The only object was somehow Congress should be defeated. Even now some declare that Congress must be defeated even with the cooperation of communists and all the rest. Recently elections were held in Kerala. During the elections, Communists, Muslim League, Swatantra Party, S.S.P. Rebel Congress known as Kerala Congress, Revolutionary Socialist Party etc. entered into a variety of bilateral of multiple alliances.

As a result, it was difficult to imagine that any of these parties had a definite ideology, principles and aims. This is the situation as far as principles are concerned. Congress too, is in a similar state. Even though the Congress has proclaimed democratic socialism as its goal, the behavior of various Congress leaders shows one thing clearly that there are no definite, principles, no single direction in Congress. There are staunch communists in Congress fold. There are also those who have faith in, Capitalism and oppose communism to the teeth. All brands of people are arrayed on Congress platform. If there can be a magic box which contains a cobra and a mongoose living together, it is Congress. We must ponder whether we can progress under such conditions. If we stop to analyze the reasons for the problems facing the country we will find that the confusion about our goal and the direction is mainly responsible for the chaos. I realize that all the 450 million people of Bharat cannot agree on all or even on a single question. That is not possible in any country. Yet there is generally, what is called a more or less common desire of the people of any nation. If this popular longing is made the basis of our aims, the common man feels that the nation is moving in a proper direction, and that his own aspiration is reflected in the efforts of the nation. This also generates the greatest possible feeling of unity. The truth of the statement is borne out by the response of the people during the Chinese Invasion of October/November 1962. A wave of enthusiasm swept across the country.  Action and sacrifice both obtained in abundance. There was no barrier between the government and the public or between various political parties. How did this happen? The external threat made us recognize ourselves. The government adopted that policy which reflected the widespread feeling in the people and which enhanced their sense of self-respect with a call for sacrifice. The result was, we stood united.

The Root of Our Problems-Neglect of Self

It is essential that we think about our national identity. Without this identity there is no meaning of independence, nor can independence become the instrument of progress and happiness. As long as we are unaware of our national identity, we cannot recognize develop all our potentialities. Under alien rule this identity is suppressed. That is why nations wish to remain independent so that they can progress according to their natural bent and can experience happiness in their endeavor. Nature is powerful. An attempt to go against nature or to disregard her leads to troubles. The natural instincts cannot be disregarded but it is possible to elevate this nature to the level of culture.

Psychology informs us how by suppression of various natural instincts different mental disorders ensue. Such a person remains restless and dejected. His abilities slowly deteriorate and become perverted. The Nation too like the individual becomes a prey to numerous ills when its natural instincts are disregarded. The basic cause of the problems facing Bharat is the neglect of its national identity.

Opportunism Has Shaken the Confidence of People in Politics

A majority of those who lead the nation today as well as those who take active interest in the affairs of the country are not sufficiently aware of this root cause. Consequently opportunists with no principles reign in politics of our country. Parties and politicians have neither principles nor aims nor a standard code of conduct. A person feels nothing wrong in leaving one party and joining another. Even alliances and mergers of parties or their bifurcations are dictated not by agreement or by differences in principles by purely by gains in elections or in positions of power. In 1939 Shri Hafiz Mohammed Ibrahim was elected Muslim League ticket. Later when he joined Congress, in accordance with healthy principles of public conduct he resigned and sought reelection on Congress ticket and was once again elected. In 1948 when socialists left Congress and founded Socialist Party, all those who were members of legislature resigned and fought elections on socialist tickets. But thereafter this healthy tradition was forgotten. Now there is complete license in politics. As result, in public mind there is distrust for everyone. There is hardly any reason whose Integrity is beyond doubt in the public mind. This situation must be changed. Otherwise, unity and discipline cannot.

What Should Be Our Direction?

The nation is at crossroads. Some people suggest that we must start from where we have left off one thousand years ago, when foreign invaders disrupted our life. But nation is not an inanimate object like a cloth so that weaving can be taken. up after a gap in time. Besides it would not be rational to say that the thousand year old alien rule has interrupted the current of our national life so completely that from that time to this day we remained stationary and inactive. The nation has certainly put her genius to work, in the changing circumstances to meet the challenges thrown at her. We have struggled to continue our life forward and to wrest independence from the aliens. The current of our national life was not interrupted but has gone on ceaselessly. The task of turning the waters of Ganga back to some previous point would not be wise Ganga at Banaras may not be crystal clear as at Haridwar. But still it is the same holy Ganga. It has absorbed numerous rivulets with all their refuse. However, these have no separate existence but have become Ganga. The current Ganga must inevitably glow onwards. If this was all that happened, it would still not be a big problem. But there are other nations in the world. They have made phenomenal progress in the past one thousand years. Our entire attention was engaged in fighting for independence or staving off new hordes of invaders. We have not been able to contribute to the world progress. Now when we are free, is it not paramount that we fill this deficiency at the earliest and stand shoulder to shoulder with other advanced nations of the world?

Up to this point there is no room for difference of opinion. The difficulty arises when we fail to discern the reasons of the spectacular advance of the West, its effects, real and, apparent. This is further complicated by the fact that Britishers a representative of the West, ruled this country for a century and, during this period adopted such measures whereby in the minds of our people a contempt for things Bharatiya and respect for everything Western were subtly created. Along with the scientific advance, their way of life, manners and food habits etc. came to this country. Not only material sciences but also their social, economic and political doctrines became our standards. Today the educated in this country clearly display this effect. We shall have to decide whether this effect is good or bad for us. We had taken pride in resisting things British while they ruled us, but strangely enough, now that the Britishers have left, Westernisation has become synonymous with progress. It is true that a narrow sense of nationalism should not be allowed to obstruct the progress of the nation. However western science and the western way of life are two different things. Whereas western science is universal and must be absorbed by us if we wish to go forward, the same is not true about the western way of life and values. In fact thoughtless imitation of the West must be scrupulously discarded. There are those who consider economic and political doctrines of the West as epitome of progress and desire to transplant the same in our country. Therefore when we are trying to decide where wish to take our country and how, we must also take into consideration the basis of various economic and political doctrines of the west and their present position.

The Rise of European Nations

Among various Isms that affected the West, the principal ones are Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism. At the same time there have been some who cherish world unity and world peace and have made some efforts in that direction.

Among these, nationalism is the oldest and the strongest. After the fall of the Roman Empire and decline in the influence of the Catholic Church, the Europe witnessed rise of several nations. History of Europe in the past on thousand years is the history of the rise of and conflict among various nations. These nations extended their empires beyond the European continent and subjugate other independent countries.

Nationalism brought nation and state together resulting in nation states. At the same time the decline in the influence of the Roman Catholic Church gave rise either to national churches or to complete disappearance of religious influence on politics. Anyway the concept of secular state arose out of this situation.

Birth of Democracy In Europe

A revolutionary concept which made a deep impact on the political life of Europe is Democracy. In the beginning, every nation had a king as its head but there was gradual awakening in the minds of people against the autocracy of the royalty. The industrial revolution and the international trade resulted in the rise of a business community in all nations. Naturally there ensued a conflict between these new centres of power and the established kings and feudal lords. This conflict, adopted ‘democracy’ as its philosophical basis. The origin of democracy was sought in the Greek city republics. The common man was attracted by the lofty ideals of equality, fraternity and liberty of every citizen. France witnessed a bloody revolution. In England too, there were periodic movements. The idea of democracy gained foothold in the mind of common man. The royalty was either liquidated or their powers were drastically’ curbed and constitutional governments were established. Today democracy has been already accepted in Europe. Even those who have suppressed democracy do not denounce it. The dictators like Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin too paid lip service to democracy.

Individual Was Exploited

Every individual got a vote in the democratic setup. But real power stayed with those who had led the revolution. Industrial revolution had generated faith in the new methods of production. Instead of working in the freedom of home, workers had started working in the factories taking orders from the factory owners, The worker migrated from his home town to dwell in crowded cities. There was no provision of proper housing. There were hardly any rules in the factory to protect the worker. He was economically weak and not yet organized. He became a victim of exploitation, injustice and harassment. Those in whom political power was vested were members of the same group who exploited the workers. Hence there was no hope of redress from the state.

A number of persons led movements in protest against this injustice with the desire to improve the lot of workers. They called themselves socialists. Karl Marx was one of them. In an effort to lead the movement against t injustice, he studied the entire history and structure presented his analysis of the situation. He claimed to have given a scientific basis to his theories. All the subsequent socialists might not have agreed with Marx but they all considerably influenced by his ideas.

Dictatorship of The Proletariat

According to Marx analysis-dialectic materialism the root cause of exploitation lies in the private owners of the means of production. If these means are made the property of the society (for. the Marxist, the Society synonymous with the State) then there will be no further exploitation. But before this the state should be redeemed from the hands of the exploiters and ensured against their influence in future. Towards this end, dictatorship of proletariat must be established. In order that people tolerate this dictatorship, it was held as an ideal that when the exploiter class has been finally liquidated, and possibility of its resurgence exists, the state will be replaced by a classless, stateless society. Marx also attempted to show that capitalism contains seeds of own destruction and that socialism is inevitable.

In some countries of Europe there was social revolution. Even where, socialism was not accepted, politicians had to accept the rights of workers. “Welfare State” was accepted as an ideal. Nationalism, democracy, socialism or equality (equality is there at the root of socialism; equality is different from equability), these three doctrines have dominated European social political thinking. Every now and then apart from these ideals of world, peace and world unity also cropped up. All these are good ideas. They reflect the higher aspirations mankind. But by itself each of these doctrines is incomplete. Not only that, each stands opposed to the rest in practice. Nationalism poses a threat to world peace. Democracy and Capitalism join hands to give free reign exploitation. Socialism replaced Capitalism and brought with it democracy and individual freedom. Hence the West is present faced with the task of reconciling these good ideals. They have not succeeded to this day, in this task. They have tried combinations and permutations, by emphasis on one or the other ideal. England emphasized nationalism and democracy and developed her politico-social institutions along those lines, whereas France could not adopt the same. There, democracy resulted in political instability. The British Labor party wanted to reconcile socialism with democracy but people have raised doubts whether democracy will survive if socialism gains strength. Hence the labor party no longer supports socialism so strongly as the Marxist doctrines advocate. If socialism has been diluted considerably, Hitler and Mussolini adopted nationalist cum socialism and buried democracy. In the end socialism also became a tool for their nationalism which posed a great threat to world peace and unity. We may indeed seek some guidance from the western world but the fact is, it has no concrete suggestions to offer. It is itself at crossroads unable to decide what is good. Under such circumstances we cannot expect guidance from the West. On the contrary we must consider whether in this present state of the world, we can contribute something to resolve its dilemma. Having taken note of the progress of the world, can we add to the common store of Knowledge? As a member of the world community, we must discharge our responsibilities. If we possess something that may prove helpful to world progress we should not hesitate in imparting it to the world. In this era of adulteration, instead of adulterating ideas we must on the contrary scrutinize and improve upon them wherever possible before accepting them. Rather than being a burden on the world, we must attempt to resolve if possible the problems facing the world. We must also consider what contribution our tradition and civilization make to the world culture. We shall consider this tomorrow evening.

(Source: http://deendayalupadhyay.org/speeches.html)

Lecture #2: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5290

Lecture #3: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5294

Lecture #4: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5298

Integral Humanism – A Study

एकात्म मानव दर्शन : एक अध्ययन

Panditji’s most valuable contribution to mankind was his enunciation of the concept of Integral Humanism. Those deeply involved in the make-and-break politics may mistake Panditji’s Integral Humanism as a new ‘ism’ or doctrine or dogma propounded by him inorder to counter all other prevailing ‘isms’ or to add a new one. It is all too well-known that prophets of an ‘ism’ or a new political thought claim originality. It is more so in the West. A slight deviation or difference with the current thought entitles one to proclaim himself the founder of a new doctrine. But no such thought ever crossed Panditji’s mind. As a true votary of culture, he was not given to this narrowness. He believed in what Bhagwan Sri Krishna said in the Gita that true knowledge is timeless. One may observe some variation in its expressed form owing to varied situations and conditions but that does not mean the creation of new knowledge. Panditji, through his creative ability and positive outlook put a new gloss on the true and eternal thought current and reinterpreted it to suit the changed and contemporary world. It would be clear, therefore, that integral humanism was conceived only to perfect ‘isms’ so that they could meet the challenges posed to them. It was farthest from his thought to add to the ideological bitterness obtaining in the society by outright rejection or repudiation of any of the contemporary ideas, ism or viewpoints while expressing his own.

Why this ‘ism’ or that

Pandiji was opposed to all ‘isms’. He only believed that which was truthful and timeless, could face the challenges of change and, therefore, could hardly fit into the steel-frame of any ‘ism’. In other words, no ‘ism’ can ever suit all countries and conditions and for all times. He precisely thought so. But in the modern age, people cannot think without an ‘ism’, and he too adopted the usage only as a compromise for the convenience of his audience.

But to dispel any doubts in this behalf, he used to explain that as one cannot easily concentrate his mind in निर्गुण (“Nirgun” or attribute-less) (or) निराकार (“Niraakar” or formless) ब्रह्मा (Brahma), he needs in the beginning, to fix his mind on सगुन (Sagun or of attributes) or साकार (Sakar or of forms) ब्रह्मा (Brahma). Once one gets accustomed to this form of concentration it becomes easier for him later to do so in respect of the “Nirguna” or “Nirakar” Brahma also. So to grasp easily the real and eternal truth which is above all ‘isms’, first one has to comprehend fully the reality that exists in this world through the medium of integral humanism.

Seer not a Philosopher

To engage oneself in constant debate, discourse or a controversy is the function of a philosopher. Panditji was not a philosopher in that sense of the term. To call him so is to belittle him. In the tradition of Bharatiya sages of yore, he was in fact a seer. Therefore, whatever he has seen and perceived, may be called दर्शन, “Darshan”. The word philosophy hardly conveys what we Bharatiyas mean by the term. This kind of “Darshan” is neither new nor unfamiliar to us. It has flourished in our soil. It will be worthwhile to understand this basic point before we proceed further so that there is no confusion because of the use of this suffix.

Why at all we needed the term and the concept of Integral Humanism at this juncture, specially when many many ‘isms’ and thoughts were born, spread and are regarded as progressive in the west. Many of our people wonder whether it is worth its while to strain our brains unnecessarily when our problems could be solved by borrowing wholesale the ‘isms’ or theories of the west. Similarly, it is also unreasonable to reject everything of western origin. It would therefore be useful to briefly review the currents and cross-currents of western thought in the last three or four centuries.

Western Thought

Let us, first of all, deal with ‘sect’, or religion. It can be stated briefly that when this drama of religion was being enacted on the European stage, the entire system or order was centrifugal. The Pope was the central point and the entire Christian world revolved around him. Later on, two revolts challenged the centralized authority of the Pope.

In the second phase of religion, the idea that there was no need of an intermediary like the Pope between the seeker and the sought became very powerful. This gave rise to sects like the Protestants. The people thought that interference by an external authority which may be confined to religious matters, should not be permitted in the affairs of the state. Thus was born the concept of Nationalism.

In the third phase, we find that the existence of religion was attacked and it was decried as meaningless as an ‘opiate’. To think of a supernatural power beyond perceptible human power came to be regarded as devoid of truth and mere flight of imagination. The origin, middle and the end of the universe was nothing but godless physical matter. Religion was nothing but an illusion. As physical elements and matter were believed to be origin of nature, mind too was considered a superstructure on matter. I other words, religion, culture, ethics, etc., has no independent existence and were mere reflections of social and economic conditions. Thus in the third phase, matter became fundamental and religion was totally rejected.

Reaction against Atheism

The next phase of development in Europe witnessed a reaction against materialistic atheism. Scholars and thinkers began to realize that whatever views Marx might have formed on degeneration of religion and the Church and howsoever relevant they might have been to the situation then prevailing there, it would be wrong to regard them universal or global. Instead, emphasis shifted to re-evaluation of the place of religion in the different countries in different periods. Thinkers began saying that even if religion was not to be regarded as fundamental to human life, they would have to concede, it had a distinct place and it would be wrong to think that religion was an opiate or its form was determined by social and economic condition.

Change in Marxists’ Thinking

Such ideas started gathering momentum. Further, even the staunchest of Marxists who, very loudly denounced God in favour of materialism and who condemned religion as opiate, started doubting Marx as crude materialist. His thesis in 1842, on the freedom of the individual and the freedom of the press, and his Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts published in 1844, prompted his followers to declare that he was not a mere materialistic thinker. They thought that just as inanimate and material things influenced abstract thought, abstract thinking too influenced insentient material objects. Similarly, if, on the one hand, social and economic situation played an important role in shaping religion, culture and ethics, on the other, socio-economic conditions were also influenced by religion, culture and ethics. In other words, they act and interact on each other.

Four Centuries of European Thought

Let us discuss what does European history of four centuries reveal? We find that in the early period individual is the primary unit. But when the curtain is raised, we do not find the free individual anywhere on the scene. He is merely a puppet in the hands of the Pope or of the Monarch with no free will of his own.

In the next stage, we see that the individuality of man asserts itself through defiance of the oppressors. This led to open revolt against the Pope and the Monarch, which liquidated the authority of the Papal state and monarchy. Later, the thought that individual freedom should remain unrestrained gained ground. Institutions like the Parliament, or other democratic systems which ensured individual freedom came into existence and people were happy that those agencies could protect individual liberty.

With the passage of time, individual liberty led to freedom for exploitation; the democratic institutions turned into means of exploitation of the weak by the strong, of the poor by the rich and of the less intelligent by the more intelligent. We thus witness in Europe emergence of two classes – the exploiting minority and the exploited majority. Those oppressed to any kind of exploitation were up against freedom of exploitation while those opposed to it wanted to do away with individual freedom. In other words, extinction of individuality of the individual was demanded. The situation, then, warranted a totalitarian apparatus. And what could it be?

All intents to establish a totalitarian state in the name of individual freedom and all institutions wanting freedom of exploitation met with strong opposition. Thus arose the need of a revolution, a bloody revolution, since democratic institutions were found to be incapable of ending exploitation. It is how the idea of a bloody revolution aimed at establishing a dictatorship of the proletariat gained popular support. Incidentally, a bloody revolution did take place in Russia. But experience proved that it was not the dictatorship of the entire exploited masses but of a coterie, a ruling coterie. People tolerated the order in the hope that, that was a transitory phase and that as soon as the dictatorship of the have-nots was established, the situation would change. But their hopes were belied and they began to realize that the dictatorship of an individual or a small clique has come to stay. That, perhaps, is the reason why we witness signs of revolt against this order, the one under which they are groaning.

Urge for Individual Freedom

It appears that rumblings against the communist state and the urge and efforts to restore individual freedom have set in. In the countries which are not directly ruled by communists but have communist parties, party leaders are hotly debating why could not democratic institutions and agencies be used to end exploitation. An influential section of such leaders argue that, may be the idea of bloody revolution was relevant and inescapable in the timers of Marx, but in the changed circumstances, parliamentary institutions could be utilized for founding dictatorship of the proletariat. On the other hand, in countries where Communism had not gained any foothold and where parliamentary democracy and other democratic institutions were welcomed as alternative to monarchy and as weapon to defend the individual, people seem to be losing faith in these very institutions. This section believes in complete freedom and is not prepared to bear with even such restraints and discipline as the western democracy prescribes for the individual. It makes no distinction between freedom and licence. Hippies, in the western world, belong to this section. They are not only opposed to democratic institutions but to any order that be. This, in short, is what has been going on in the West during the last three or four centuries; that is individual dominated as the central entity.

Revolt against ‘Family’

Now after the individual, we will discuss the institution and the system of family which remained intertwined in all societies through the ages. Hindu Shastras, Confucianism, Islam and Christianity all alike, accepted it as indispensable.   But in the west, this too was attacked for two reasons. The Communist condemned the family as being artificial system. They asked ‘why as entity like family should be allowed to stand between the individual and the society?’ – So – ‘break the family and set up communes’, they exhorted. In another direction a strong dislike was expressed against family discipline which each individual had to undergo. This, according to the dissenters, is a negation of individual freedom. The family, therefore, deserves to be destroyed and the young men or women should bid good-bye to their parents after marriage. The smaller the ones’ family, the better for unrestrained actions and doings.The deficiencies and faults of the two schools came to the fore sooner than later. The experiment of communes, in Soviet Russia flopped and as a reaction the desire for family life grew stronger. Even under communist state demand for extending legal recognition to parenthood and fatherhood became so forceful that ultimately the rulers had to yield. Similarly, in democratic countries, more especially in the U.S.A, eminent thinkers raised their voice against Hippie cult of licentious way of life and suggested reintroduction of the joint family, without which, a stable society was a far cry. Such views are now being widely accepted in USA.


The unit next to family is nation, society or national society. Somehow, it appears that owing, perhaps, to the overwhelming influence of the Pope over European masses, the awareness of nation or nationalism could not develop. But the same grew out of the reaction against the Pope’s interference in religion and against foreign and imperialist aggression. This background gave birth to a reactionary type of nationalism in Europe, which reinforced the view that if nationalism and the authority of the Pope could not go together, nationalism and internationalism were also opposed to each other. Consequently, a crude and extremist form of nationalism was born in every country of Europe.  Later a reaction to this extremist nationalism was natural, which led to the emergence of another extremist ideology – Communism.

Communism discarded the concept of religion nation or nationalism etc., as being redundant and meaningless and required everyone to think in terms of internationalism which alone was considered relevant. When in 1914 during the First World War, workers in several countries supported their respective national governments; Lenin could not help expressing his anguish over their stance. He suggested that the workers, instead of co-operating with their governments, should have turned traitors and strengthened the wave of internationalism.

Before long the communists took over in a number of countries. But in the process the charisma of internationalism began fading and nationalism again started reasserting as a force so much so that even under the state wedded to internationalism a thinker like Morris Hindos in his book ‘Mother Russia’ makes a strong advocacy of nationalism. In this context the two chapters of the book, “Rediscovery of the Past” and “Russia for Russians” are quite significant. And how the two internationalist powers (Russia and China) are set on a collision course at present is too well-known for comment.

Progress Stunted

The present conflict between nationalism and internationalism leaves little or no scope for the west to think of mankind as a whole. The reason behind this is that their entire thinking is homocentric – which means, that the center of the universe is the human race and the western realm of thought has kept revolving around it. Let us not take sides in the ideological strife of the west as to which one is right and which is wrong. But one cannot help concluding that whenever an ideology was imported into this country from the west, it was acclaimed as progressive and all other were branded reactionary. In spite of this, we find that none of the so-called progressive ideologies lasted long. They continued to change and vacillate from one extreme to another. This makes it very clear that the western thought has yet to attain durability and finality.

Product of Reaction

In short, the western though instead of being positive is an outcome of reactionLet us put it like this: Suppose there is a particular situation prevailing in a country, it is bound to give rise to an idea or thought. It also needs revision when the situation changes. Therefore, the entire western thinking being based on reaction, we notice a serious ideological conflict in that part of the world. We reckon it as their second trait. The third one is that no western though is all embracing, is valid for all times. Moreover, it is very much segmented. The fourth being their failure to synthesize the essence of varied thoughts put forth from time to time, with the result that they remained diverse and incompatible. The French Revolution is an instance point.

Life Values

The subject for today’s discussion has in the present circumstances assumed great relevance and is a lesson for our country. It would, therefore, be essential to comprehend it well.

For the sake of equality, the difference in the minimum and maximum income is sought to be reduced (we too want it). It would then be argued that in the meantime inspiration for one’s development will go. If the live values were to be purely economic, one is apt to think as to why he should work hard. In spite of one’s sweating labour and becoming an Einstein or a Radhakrishnan if he for reasons of equality received no more than Rs.2000, his enthusiasm is dampened. On the other hand, if he is a damned idler and remains a peon he cannot be paid less than Rs.100. Why then one should be up and doing to become Einstein or Radhakrishnan.

Therefore, if the source of inspiration were purely material, the will to individual improvement or enterprise will die and if the same were to be encouraged with material gain as the end, the object of equality will have to be given good-bye. The present-day problem of brain-drain in our country has its roots in that the life values have become purely materialistic with the result that if a higher material development is not attainable in this land, it should be sought elsewhere.

In order to change this unhappy and unhealthy situation, we need a life system with different values. The system should be an amalgam of material as well as non-material life values of universal nature. I am deliberately avoiding the term ‘spiritual’ nature. One is as much inspired by material motives as by the desire of social prestige or status. Let there be a system embracing both. Ancient Bharat did evolve such a system. The system ordained an inverse ratio for acquisition of social prestige and material gains.

That is, if one aims at highest social prestige, he should be prepared to forego personal material benefits in the same ratio to further elaborate the point, highest prestige or reverence could be commanded against lowest intake of society’s material resources. If, on the contrary, one wanted maximum benefit from the society, he was free to do so, but he won’t be entitled to social prestige in the same measure. This, an order based on careful balance of the two human incentives was achieved and maintained.

West lacks Balance

But the west lacked this balance. In the early days, after Communist Revolution in Soviet Russia, people were forced to work under the overseer’s whip. And today there exists 1 to 80 disparity in the minimum and maximum incomes which completely negates their avowed equality. Even existence of classes is being tolerated. The former Yugoslavia Prime Minster Djilas in his book, ‘The New Class’ confirms this disparity. Not only that, special amenities and benefits are being offered to some, as social incentives. I would recall here, when Russia shot its first Sputnik, Khrushchev proudly proclaimed it as a victory of communism. But soon came a rebuff from the well-known philosophers Bertrand Russell, “that was not the victory but the defeat of communism – that it was because of special treatment given to the scientists which was a privileged class, which enabled them to make the Sputnik”.

I also endorse it as a defeat of communism because they could not reconcile materialist way of life with equality. This is true of Russia, Yugoslavia and all other communist countries. To be precise, all incompatibilities obtaining in democracies are equally discernible in communist countries. To be precise, all incompatibilities obtaining in democracies are equally discernible in communist countries. In other words, western ideologies lack eternality, finality and durability. They are used to thinking in bits and grooves, with the result that the ideologies of the west instead of being positive are reactionary in nature. They lacked the capacity to harmonize the various desirable goals relating to a society and to a period of time.

No Blind Imitation

Against this backdrop, we are forced to recapitulate, whether we in this country, can afford a blind imitation of the west. Swami Vivekananda was told by western thinkers, “we would accept your ideas of spiritualism and in return you should accept our ideology of socialism. You agree with us in the sphere of economics, while we do so in the area of spiritualism”.

But, Swamiji replied,Brothers, you are right, but your new ideology is in experimental stage while ours is an ancient nation. We are no fanatics. Before we accept your ideology, let us see that it has stabilized. We should like to see the evidence whether it has sustained the society for some five hundred years. We cannot accept an ideology which has not yet been tired and is still in a state of experimentation”.

Communism – its plus and minus

Communism is acknowledged in the west as the most progressive ideology of the day! Let us scrutinize it in the context of Swamiji’s statement. Fifty years has hardly elapsed since the Russian Revolution when cracks appeared in communism. The very definition of communism is being disputed in its own camps. While Russia decries China as deviationist and revisionist, China hurls back the same invective at Russia and both use these accusations against Yugoslavia. Dange is revisionist in the eyes of Namboodiripad and vice versa. The two are agreed that Charu Mazumdar was a deviationist and revisionist and in the reckoning of the latter Dange and Namboodiripad are “misguided Marxists“.  If one were to compile the epithets used by one communist camp against the other, word communism, would be reduced to, word deviationism. There is nothing in communism which has not been found faultless. No rationalist can comfort himself over this situation. If within a short span of fifty years, the entire camp of the so-called progressive nations can come to such a degree of deviation, to quote Swamiji, “what is the guarantee that the ideology has the strength to sustain the society for five hundred years”?


When we deice to review various ideologies we will have to examine their merits and demerits without following them blindly. We should not object to adopting whatever is worthy. One reconstruction, the late Sarsanghchalak of RSS, once said of our old order, “There may be many withering leaves and branches of trees which have already decayed. Let them decay and fall. Let us not be sorry over this. Similarly, if fresh sprouts grow, we should welcome them. All that has to be watched is that they do form an organic while with the mother tree, they are one with the tree. The dried leaves and the dead wood will fall and new offshoots will issue in their place with the passage of time. This is a natural process. So let there be no hesitation, rather we should welcome new thoughts. The only condition is that they should help us in reaching our goals”. But it appears that west can hardly ensure this.

Bharatiya Way of Life

Now we are set on reviewing the western thought. Likewise they are doing the same about out thought. And about our socio-economic structure they hold views contrary to ours. They do not find anything congruous and consistent in any area of thought of system. Instead, they see chaos everywhere. Let us take such areas one by one and religion first.

In the eyes of westerners, a complete anarchy prevails in the sphere of religion. For them, there is no single or uniform faith in Bharat. While one is a theist the other is an atheist, the third a monoist and the fourth a dualist. Some worship idols, some formless God and other reject God in all forms. Even the believers do not have a common God. Gods abound, perhaps they number as many as their worshipers – some 333 million. This number was arrived at perhaps to match the Indian population of yore. Every individual is free to choose his or her own path to suit his nature, psyche, physique, and need of the soul. The paths are bound to differ. But this is unthinkable in the west, firstly because, there is regimentation in thinking and secondly because, they are used to an exclusive thinking that ‘I or my path alone is right’. It is not very unnatural for them to deduce that India is full of diversities and contradictions and they are indeed baffled by them. Similarly, the places of family, nation, society, internationalism vis-à-vis the individual also appear to them to be fraught with inner contradictions.

We believe that the individual must have the fullest scope of development and is entitled to utmost happiness. Therefore, the social and economic system should be so fashioned that the individual has full scope for happiness and development. Along with individual we have also recognized family. Mother and father have been regarded as gods (मातृ देवो भवः, पितृ देवो भवः matru devo bhav, pitru devo bhav). It was never suggested that because the entity of the individual has been recognized, he is free to abandon his parents and live away with his wife after marriage. Not only that the role of the individuals as well as that of the family has been defined and delimited, it has up for been further laid down that the individual should be given the sake of family. He can even be sacrificed. It has further been ordained that give up the whole world for the sake of the self (आत्मार्थ पृथिवीं त्यजेत atmarthe prithivim tyajet). Those influenced by western thought will apparently find these thoughts as inconsistent and incompatible. But we all know it is not so.

Individual and Society

The relationship of the individual with the nation-society has been similarly defined. But in the west, there appears a conflict between the two. A fierce controversy rages there over the question of the border between the individual and the society. If the individual is permitted bigger latitude the society is curtailed in the same ratio and if the society is allowed a wider range of control, the individual’s liberty is abridged in the same measure. Therefore, we witness a tug of war between the individual and society in the west.

But in Bharat, both have their due place. Neither is at loggerheads with the other. While the principle of individual’s right to complete happiness and development and also the society’s obligation to social discipline is demanded of the individual on the other. The individual is expected to strive for his contentment and development and simultaneously required to surrender to the will of the society, i.e to do his duty to the society unhesitatingly and voluntarily. The ultimate lies in his readiness to offer his happy and developed self at the feet of the society. Thus, we can infer that there exists a complete identification between individual freedom and social discipline to the great astonishment of the west.

Nationalism and Internationalism

What has been said above about man and society relationship is true of nationalism and internationalism. In the west, nationalism is a product of reaction. This is why there has been inherent disharmony between nationalism of two nations and between nationalism and internationalism. We have a nationalistic prayer saying “I am born in this good nation, give me happiness and glory”, (प्रादुर्भूतोऽस्मि राष्ट्रेऽस्मिन्, कीर्तिं वृद्धिं ददातु मे – श्री सूक्त pradur bhuvan surashtre asmin kirtim riddhim dadatu me). We find more similar prayers for the good of the world.

I recall here an occasion during the deliberations of the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (World Hindu Conference), when a question was posed ‘how to define Hindu’. I cannot deal with the question here in depth but will touch upon one aspect of it where Hindu connotes nationalism, internationalism or even something beyond or more. The answer, however, was that when the whole world was uncivilized, world civilization was invariably identified with Hindu nationalism. But even that supreme position we never thought of exploiting other nations in the interests of our own. Our motto was कृण्वन्तो विश्वमार्यम्Krinvanto Vishwamaryam”, i.e  we are Aryans and will make the world Aryan – we are cultured and will strive to share our culture and refinement with others and raise their level. This thought forms the base of our positive nationalism, which is a historical fact and which instead of creating clash between nationalism and internationalism, provides rudiments of internationalism. We have been averse to the idea that one who claims to be a nationalist cannot be an internationalist and conversely one who is an internationalist cannot be a nationalist. Again the westerners are amazed at it. They fail to grasp how one can be a nationalist and an internationalist both at the same time. But we see no contradiction in it.

Beyond Humanity

What lies next, is beyond the west’s comprehension. They, at best, can think of internationalism or humanity and not beyond. But our thought has transgressed this limit and dwells upon still further – the entire life. Only we have conceived life other than human life. There are some among Hindus who feed fish, ants and cows with sugar and flour. Why so? Because they believe all life is like their own. Not only that, even inanimate objects are regarded as part of creation of the ParamAtma like their own selves, and worship even stones for they see the creator in them, as God is omnipresent. Further, our people inquired of themselves ‘what is man’, ‘what are other beings’, ‘what all this animate, inanimate, sentient, insentient creation is’ and themselves realized later that all creation is one. But they, nevertheless, discovered that unity was different from the uniformity. We never believed that all must be uniform but did think that all are one and how strong this unity is, has been best expressed in, सर्वं खल्विदं ब्रह्मSarvam Khalvidam Brahma” (Chandogya Upanishad), meaning, all this world is one.

Our religion and our country has the capacity to sustain the universe, the creation. Certain principles and ideals are eternal an ever-lasting and, therefore, immutable. Our religion with the force of these truthful and eternal principles has churned our best thoughts and ideas to suit changing situations and conditions. All apparent contradictions and discord have been harmonized to a great extent. If we think of one point or one thing alone many things appear conflicting. Sometimes we talk of Karma (action) and sometimes of sanyas. One one hand, we believe in Moksha and on the other in ‘all is worthless’. Sometimes, we declare धर्मस्य मूलं अर्थाम Dharmasyamulam arthah” (money is the root of Dharma). But all these apparently different and divergent views have converged into one coordinated system sometimes is unintelligible to an ordinary mind. Relying on Swami Vivekananda it can be safely said that our religion has the capacity to sustain the society and it has done so for hundreds of years. It is true that sufficient thought could not be given to what changes are warranted in the social set up over the last twelve or thirteen hundred years. Again, I would caution that there is no need to be alarmed at the word ‘change’ as changes have been effected in the society with the sanction of Dharma and philosophy from time to time. It has been said, तर्को प्रतिस्टा श्रुतियों विभिन्न रैको मुनीर यस्य वाचः प्रमाणंTarkoprathista shruthayom vibhinna, raiko munir yasya vachah pramanam”, i.e., Vedas differ, Smritis differ and words of no Muni should be treated as last word. Unfortunately, the lasting peaceful conditions which are required to this effect changes eluded us for these twelve or thirteen hundred years and some distortions and flaws crept into the system. Some surgery is undoubtedly need, but to quote Gandhiji ‘operate the diseased part but do not kill the patient;, Remove the defect but let the system work. Our society is sustaining itself for the last several centuries. We always had ageless and unchanging laws and changing provisions going hand in hand.

Now the question arises, should we accept different western ideologies as progressive, modern and better just because they are new. It would be fair to make comparative study of the two and take what is best in them. On comparison, we find that our Sanatan Dharma stands superior to western thought. It has many characteristics but in the present-day context the late Pt. Deendayal Upadhaya had said, “We stand for Integral Humanism“.

Modern Dharma

The difference in the two pictures is probably clear now. The principal feature of our धर्म,  (Dharma), as related to contemporary situation, has been termed, “Integral Humanism” by late Panditji. Sanatan Dharma more or less has the same take. It is this make which can ensure happiness and prosperity for the mankind through the ages.

A Clear Direction

Now we should also bear in mind that our way of thinking in this country is unique. The reason is that there lies fundamental difference in the basic concepts of Indian philosophy and the thoughts of non-Indian thinkers. Panditji very clearly pointed out that in the West, though has been given to various points, institutions and concepts in a compartmentalized manner. They have thought of the individual, family society and humanity as separate and non-interacting entities. When dealing with the individual, they lost sight of other organs of the society. The same applies to their thinking on family, society and humanity. This is inherent in their contemplation. They confine themselves to one organism. Let us take religion for instance. They have various faiths and sects, but one believes itself to be only right and others wrong. Now let us look at our own country. We too have numerous faiths and beliefs but here we say, “my path is right and so is yours too”. The west asserts “my religion alone leads to God”. This is the western metaphysics while Bharat says, “your religion also leads to God”. The same approach is found in socio-economic matters. They have concentrated on one entity as it has no correlation or inter-action with the other. For the sake of clearer understanding, I would add that in their system, the individual forms the center and around it are concentric circles representing family, community, nation and humanity respectively. As I have stated, this is a concentric arrangement in which individual is the center. The circles though surrounded the center, yet to have no independent existence and function and without interplay.Against this, our arrangement, which is not new but ancient, is an ever expanding spiral. It begins with the individual but goes on enlarging to family, family to society, society to nation, nation to humanity and ultimately to the universe or Srishti without ever de-linking with the center i.e, the individual.


The difference of the two systems is worthy of note. We dwelt upon the individual, family, community, society, nation and mankind. And so did they. But as I have submitted these two systems widely differ. They treated all as distinct though concentric entities with no inter-relation but we did not. So their though remained exclusive.In our system, on the other hand, one entity originates from the other and expands into the next and thus forming an infinite spiral with no inner conflicts and no tensions. Individual nowhere comes into clash with family and family with community and so on and so forth. Not only that one is not opposed to the other, we have gone a step further, we believe one is complementary to the other. I would further illustrate my point. An infant knows little about anything but himself. As he grows he recognizes his parents, his brothers, sisters and the people around him and thus develops the awareness of family, but this awareness does not negate his ‘I’. To him, ‘I’ and the family both are a reality. He grows and develops his mind and becomes capable of action. He then forms a community with people of like mind and like action and becomes indistinguishable and inseparable from his community. By and by he develops an identity with the nation and becomes one with it. And at last comes the state f Sanyas, सन्यास (renunciation) when he realizes that all humanity is one, nay, entire cosmos is one and he is not only the citizen of the world but of the universe.

So from an infact ‘I’ (aham), to the highest attainment, rather renunciation as a sanyasin – is a long journey in the realm of self-cum-social consciousness of man. As his consciousness grows, his attachment with the old (small) entity, though a reality, starts wearing and that with the new one – the bigger one – becomes stronger. The last and the ultimate, i.e., “all this universe is Brahma (God)” is reached when one discards everything material (takes to Sanyas).

No Chaos

In other words, all units or entities are realities of life. As our consciousness grows, our vision widens. As all are realities, one is not at cross purpose with the other. None can be denied and none discarded. This is like the seed, sprouting into plant, plant growing into a tree and tree blossoming and bearing fruits. The seed, the plant, the flowers and the fruit all look different. None appears to have any relation with the other. To some, it may appear that there is chaos in the nature. But is it so? Not at all. All this is the process of evolution, growth and development. There is no conflict between the seed and the tree. The tiniest and the tallest entities, though have their independent existence, together form a single integrated whole. Bharatiya way of thinking is akin to this.

Why Integrated Life

We have laid enough emphasis on individual, the smallest unit, and rightly so. We conceive of an individual so organized and integrated as is unknown to the west. There the stress is on material progress. As you know, the U.S.A is considered to be the most advanced nation and country. They have attained a high level of prosperity but is it not surprising that common people there should be deprived of happiness and contentment? Their life seems plagued with contradictions, strife, unrest highest crime incidence, suicides and things like that. There appears tremendous increase in high blood pressure, heart ailments and criminal tendencies. The country which has the capacity to buy the whole world could not buy mental peace. So we are constrained to think, “What after all is our goal?” – Happiness which is enduring and real.

Europe, in spite of limitless acquisition is groping for happiness. Christ rightly said that, even if one has the whole world and yet loses his soul he is the loser. The west has reached the moon but has lost its happiness. On the contrary, our smallest unit, the individual is more organized and integrated. He is not divided or torn. An American psychologist has said of American society, ‘our roads are full of crowds of isolated, solitary and self alienated humans’. When they are so isolated within themselves, what use they can be to the world? There is no harmony between the individual and the society. The ill lies in considering man a physical and economic being. They think that once man is given money and material, comfort, happiness and peace will follow. But this expectation is belied. This is why highest standards of living failed to bring in its wake the much sought after happiness. This flows from the defect that they always thought in isolation, in bits, so to say, and never, thought of  various facets of human nature and its needs except that man is an economic being.


We admit that man is also an economic being and there be no doubt about it. His needs of food, sleep (aahaar, nidra, bhaya, maithunam cha), fear and sex must be satisfied. But this was not enough and we did not stop here. We thought that man was something more than economic being. He is a physical, psychological, political, social, and religious being too.

आहार निद्रा भय मैथुनं च सामान्यमेतत् पशुभिर्नराणाम् ।
धर्मो हि तेषामधिको विशेष: धर्मेण हीनाः पशुभिः समानाः ॥

(आहार, निद्रा, भय और मैथुन – ये तो इन्सान और पशु में समान है;  
इन्सान में विशेष केवल धर्म है, अर्थात् बिना धर्म के लोग पशुतुल्य है)

As I have said, his individuality has many facets. Therefore, if all aspects of human nature are not attended to in entirety, he will be deprived of the state of real happiness and contentment. In our wholesome thinking while we did not neglect man’s needs and desires and conceded that they should be satisfied, we also imposed reasonable restraints. It is not true that only Freud gave serious thought to sex. In this country, sex has been treated in all seriousness, an indispensible force. In Chapter 3, Sloka 42 of the Gita, it has been said:

इन्द्रियाणि पराण्याहुरिन्द्रियेभ्यः परं मनः ।
मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्यो बुद्धेः परतस्तु सः ॥

( इन्द्रियोंको स्थूल शरीरसे पर (श्रेष्ठ) कहते हैं; इन्द्रियोंसे श्रेष्ठ मन है;
मनसे भी पर बुद्धि है और जो बुद्धिसे भी पर है वह (आत्मा) है )

… which means senses are above desires, mind is above sense, intellect above mind and soul (आत्मन, atman) is indescribable and above all. Some scholars have interpreted सः this sloka as Kama, the sexual desire. But even if this is agreed, sex has not been left unbridled and unrestrained. It has been subjected to restriction. Bhagwan Sri Krishna himself claims, “I am Kama”, but at the same time he also says, “I am Kama and Kama should be satisfied but not against Dharma”.

Life based on Dharma

Like sex we admit money has a place in life. All should be able to satisfy their material needs. One need not have to worry night and day about how to fill his belly. He should have enough leisure to devote it to literary, artistic and cultural pursuits and also to God if he so desires. Thus, while taking full cognizance of money and sex, man has been cautioned against their use beyond a reasonable limit, lest it may spell his doom and disintegrate the society. Our ancient seers were very conscious of the possible pitfalls and evolved a philosophy which incorporated some eternal laws and some universal laws. They also perceived and tested them. They did not merely search, codify or compile such laws. The sum total of the perceived laws – eternal and universal – made to prevent the individual from falling, the society from degeneration and for the highest development and progress of the individual is known as Dharma. But Dharma alone is not enough. Money and sex were not ignored. They were, however, sandwiched between Dharma on one end and Moksha (‘salvation’) on the other. Thus was evolved a quartet of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha for guiding the human endeavor and enterprise. This being coordinated, organized and integrated system did not divide or split the individual but gave free choice of his life’s goals and ideals best suited to his physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual capacities and capabilities, keeping his individuality intact.

What is Integrated Humanism?

It must always be remembered that unless various ingredients of the individual and individuality are organized, an organized society remains a far cry. In fact this organized state is our starting point where from we march towards the individual, family, nation, humanity and the entire universe, i.e., all animate and inanimate creation. And this is integral humanism, we will find that it not only obviates conflict between various entities, but establishes that one emanates from the other as part of a process of development in which the smaller entity though autonomous in its area, merges into the bigger one. So far as the human society is concerned, its sequence can be from individual to family and family to nation and nation-state and then to one world state on the basis of integral humanism. In the realm of thought the highest level would be the principle of non-dualism Advait.

Goals of Integral Humanism

The world state or government as conceived under integral humanism will be quite different from the once conceived by the communists. Their world will be mono-centric and monolithic, while ours will be multi-centric and multilithic. The communist system will be sustained by regimented thinking and will display uniformity, but in our world system no such uniformity is foreseen. Every nation will be free to develop according to its own genius. Every nation will consider itself an organ of the body – the world government – in the same way as an individual subordinates himself of his own free will his entire acquisitions and achievements to the society at large. We will be one with the whole mankind and whatever material progress we attain through our best efforts, its ripe and sweet fruits will be offered at the feet of the Humanity. This is how a nation while remaining free and sovereign, will progress and will be bound with others by good-will and cooperation, flowing from its commitment to the spirit of universality. A world government on this model will be after Pt. Deendayalji’s dream of Integral Humanism, followed by non-dualism Advait, in the world of thought which is logical consequence. In the end, I would reassure that if we hold fast to the thoughts and ideals, propounded by him, we should be able to dispel the confusion in the midst of which the present generation finds itself confounded.

(Translation of a Speech by Shri Dattopant Bapurao Thengadi, organised by Deendayal Upadhyaya Smarak Siksha Samiti at Kanpur in February, 1970).

(Courtesy: Deendayal Upadhyaya’s Integral Humanism: documents, interpretations, comparisons, New Delhi: Deendayal Research Institute, 1992, Integral Humanism – A Study, pg:70-84, Edited by Sri.Devendra Swarup). 

(Courtesy: Sri.Raghunandan, Dakshina Madhya Kshetriya Samyojak, Pragnya Pravah).

For further reading, please refer the link : Deendayal Upadhyaya – The Seer of Integral Humanism

Integral Man : Bharatiya Concept

एकात्म मानव : भारतीय चिंतन

For obvious reasons, it has become necessary for us to reflect once again on Indian life values at this juncture. So long as we were subjugated nation, the dominant thought in Indian minds was about our country, our nation, our identity. It was generally believed that attainment of our nation a’s freedom, and its reconstruction, called for the services of virtuous people – people who were free from blemishes, selfless, full of sacrifice and devotion. In those days, workers of political parties used to live a life of simplicity and sacrifice. None ever dreamt of any departure from this tradition. When the leadership of the nation rested in the hands of such eminent men of high character, integrity, and selfless nature, our nation could manifest its sacred and glorious tradition and would reach the height of prosperity, it was believed. But unbridled power brings in its wake many a vice. It is said that of the many intoxicants, the toxic effect of power is the most harmful. It can be said that in today’s public life qualities like simplicity, selflessness and sacrifice have become conspicuous by their absence. Corruption is rampant. Without quoting specific instances, it can generally be stated that of the people in public life today, there are many whose public activities are strikingly at variance with the well-recognized standards.

Since a few years back, it is being said that is a “Crisis of Character” in our country. But nobody takes seriously to the task of character-building. We expect ordinary men to be of good character, full of virtues and of a selfless nature. That is why, probably, even acts of misfeasance were made punishable under our Penal Code. But nobody seems to be concerned about the many major scandals involving persons in high positions. This is indeed a paradox!

In order that the day-to-day activities of the common man may be carried on and his family and the society may be properly sustained, it is necessary that their primary needs are guaranteed. Arrangements for meeting the requirements of material prosperity should commence from those who are at the bottom. Only after satisfying the elementary wants of the people at the lower strata of society, should we turn our attention to those in the higher strata. In order to achieve this, even if it becomes necessary for those at the top to reduce some of their luxuries and even necessaries, it should be done ungrudgingly. They should willingly accept this kind of self-imposed control on their consumption, for the sake of the general good. But in the matter of character-building, the order is reversed. There is need for is to have people at the top who are the very models in self-control, simplicity and virtuous conduct so that these essential qualities percolate down to the foundation and saturate the various strata below. But it is seen today that whilst the higher classes are indulging in all kinds of luxuries, they expect ordinary men, near the base to be fill of character, and self-control. This is quite opposite of what it ought to be. This way it is not possible to have real progress and proper sustenance of society.

It is also seen that, so long as we were under subjugation, on account of our national self-respect, endeavours were made to mould our lives according to our tradition. At that time, the compulsions of the situation inevitably brought us into contact with foreigners, and the impact it produced on our minds, was one of antagonism to foreign rule. But as soon as foreign rule came to an end, the great inspiration that kept the foreign influences under check, also gave way. Our entire life pattern was transformed. Whilst it is understandable that contacts with different people of the world call for some kind of ‘give and take’ which is so necessary in this business, it was a one-way traffic in our case. We were at the receiving end, and we have been receiving things indiscriminately; even unworthy things we did not reject. If we had emulated an Englishman’s patriotism, his other special characteristics such as devotion to duty, duty consciousness, his unbounded energy, etc. there was nothing wrong. But we only copied undesirable aspects, like their outward life-style, their mode of living, etc, with the result that we started condemning everything that is our own, that reflected our ‘self’. This indiscriminate copying is vitiating the whole social life today at very fast rate. This transformation is harmful for our life-style, character building and a sense of duty. In such a situation, it has become essential for us to be reminded of on identity.

But this re-awakening of self-consciousness is not very easy. There are many a difficulties in the way, one being occasioned by the system of education of the past years. The crafty Englishman who introduced this system of education for us had said, “We shall have black Englishmen, here, in India”. Most of us today answer more or less to this description. They despise everything India. If anybody were to say that we in India have great principles of life which are beneficial to the whole of humanity, the educated amongst us, whose only concern is with his self-advancement, is not even prepared to believe it. We should be grateful to God that on some occasions at least our leaders refer to our national life as centuries old. But this is merely confined to talk. Mere words these. Behind these words, there is no sincerity, or determination to place these luminous thoughts before the people or effort to manifest them in their own lives. Therefore, they are mere hollow words, a veil, or a mask.

On account of the influence of the West, it has become fashionable to say, “I do not believe in God, or Dharma”. It is needless to have faith in these things.” It has become fashionable to negate the very fundamentals of our life-structure. There is, need, therefore, for us to ponder whether these people –English Men – who have made these kinds of impressions on our minds, have any higher philosophy, or any philosophy at all to offer.

From the philosophical standpoint, Communism is much talked of today. Let us see what it really means to us. It has propounded certain doctrines. It talks of certain ideas for a social order, and propagate these ideas with great fanfare. They speak about the need of creating a system for distributing happiness equitably. Non-communist countries of the west do not have any such philosophy except perhaps the much-talked of French Revolution declarations like Democracy, Equality, Fraternity, etc., and their wish to model their political, economic and social systems on these principles. But the statement that all men are equal, its one that is contrary to our experience. As we see it, no two individuals are identical; even twins are no alike. True, there can be identity in their physical needs. But to talk of equality in intellect and physical and mental qualities would be contrary to reality of experience. That is why there is a certain fallacy in their philosophy.

Taking their cue from this philosophy – this declaration of equality – the Communists also endeavour to being in an order where equality would prevail. It may be relevant to ask in this context whether human life is confined to this world alone. Is it that man wants only food, shelter and things pleasing to the mind? Is production and distribution of these is only goal in life? The so called democracies and Communist countries of the west differ only in terminologies and nothing else; both declare that life is confined to matter of this world. It means that it is wealth-oriented. Today the main thrust of life is on wealth (artha) and pleasure (kama) artistic and cultural life. After acquiring wealth, it is necessary to protect and enrich it, because desires are never satiated.

As is well-known, life today is full of wealth-producing activity. Preservation and accumulation of wealth is necessary because nobody feels happy merely by entertaining a desire only once. Therefore, it is said, “न जातु कामः कामानां उपभोगेन शाम्यति” – na jatuh kamah kamaanam upbhogena shamyati.” When wood is thrown into the fire, the fire flares up. Similarly our desires also rebound with great force when satisfied. It is our everyday experience that in spite of physical incapacity to enjoy various pleasures, the thirst for them continues to persist. That is why it has been said, “What shall we do Sir, whilst we have grown old, our desires remain young,”तृष्णा न जीर्णा वयमेव जीर्णाः – trushna na jirna vayamev jirnah.” No passion is completely is satiated. It is therefore, that, to satiate these desires, more and more means are acquired and hoarded, and even the property of other is encroached on, when one’s own is not enough. The form of imperialism that we see in the contemporary world is the culmination of man’s unrestrained lust. This tendency gives birth to the desire to occupy other countries by force. As such, there is no hope for peace in the world. It is inevitable that restlessness in man’s mind should manifest itself in his outward activities. Unfulfilled desires lead to a restless mind. That is one of the causes for conflicts in the world. That is one of the causes for conflicts in the world. It has never been seen that by man’s satisfying all kinds of desires, peace will be attained, or the thirst for enjoyment will be over.

In the 16th chapter of the Gita, there is a description of two types of men, the “divine” type and the “demoniac” type. We see in the world today, men in their greed for their wealth pouncing upon each other; nations pouncing upon each other to grab wealth and establish (their) sovereignty over others. This is demoniac tendency – “I have killed X today, I will kill Y tomorrow. Now I have snatched X’s wealth, tomorrow I will deprive Z of his belongings. I am great. I am philanthropist. I sacrifice. There is nobody equal to me.” Even today, on account of a preponderance of “artha” and “kama”, people egoistically proclaim their being Socialists, Communists, Democrats, etc.

We see the living picture of the 16th Chapter of the Gita depicting the divine and demoniac tendencies in human nature. We do not see any divine power or divine qualities in the west. We shall now have to chalk out our way through this kind of a world. Various people have tried to find out various ways. People wanted to mould their lives according to the doctrine of their religious ideal but that did not satisfy them because those religions did not have any fundamental principles or basic philosophy. “There is only one God and he has a Messenger. Have faith in the Messenger and pray to God devotedly and ask for deliverance from all sins”, they say. But why should a person, who is fully engrossed in the pursuit of “artha” and “kama” and does not believe in God, ask forgiveness? In spite of this, he is asked to have faith. Ordinarily, an intelligent man is unable to have such a faith. First his intellect has to be satisfied; then talk to him about faith. “All your intellectual exercises have reached their end. Intellect cannot go any further”. This has to be the way of approach. He believes only what is intellectually supported. If in the beginning they are told to have faith intelligent men would find it unacceptable. Faith can come only when their intellect is satisfied and when they find it can take them no further.

We see various persons from the west engaged in proselytizing activities here in India. In their own countries, Churches are empty and very few people visit them. People have lost faith in them. They arouse no emotions in their inmost beings. They do not feel inspired. We shall have to offer them a formula that will enable them to restrain their demoniac way of life based on wealth and passion (artha and kama).

Let us see if our national and social traditions can show the way. To me, there is no doubt that they can. Our seers and sages of yore have comprehensively deliberated on these problems and have proclaimed that life based exclusively on artha and kama is the life of an animal, is demoniac and therefore to be abandoned. But they also know that it is not possible for one to free oneself completely from artha and kama. The desire for these will continue to occupy men’s minds to some extent. But it is necessary to find out ways and means to see that man may not become demoniac by allowing unrestrained play to artha and kama. That is why we have been told that desires are not satiated by indulging in them. And secondly, man’s expectation of getting happiness by the acquisition of things is illusory as they by themselves are incapable of giving them happiness. Happiness lies within oneself. It is not external. It is on account of our ignorance that we attribute happiness to some external objects, whereas in reality we only use the external object as a medium to taste happiness from the infinite ocean of bliss which is within us.

It is human destiny to experience this state of delight which is within. This is the fundamental principle which our sages have propounded. The one who rids himself of all wordly ties, one who remains unaffected by the attractions of outside objects, he alone can reach this state of eternal happiness. He is a liberated soul. This is ultimate goal of man. But until he reaches that goal, he will have to exert to some extent in this world, in order to satisfy his worldly desires. We shall, however have to ensure, by having proper checks and balances, that this exercise does not transgress the bounds of decency.

To achieve this goal, we have been told to follow the path of Dharma. Of all the definitions of Dharma, the one widely held and accepted, has the following to say: Just as it is necessary for a man to have mental peace and concentration of mind to experience happiness, so also for an individual to live a safe and secure life, a well-ordered social set up is necessary. If the society is well-organised, is united and which, while allowing different types of people freedom to engage themselves in the pursuit of their respective occupations, motivates them to work for their prosperity, security and a high and noble life for the entire society in a spirit of mutual cooperation – that is Dharma. Creating conditions for the sustenance of society is one of the functions of Dharma. The second function is to prompt men to act according to Dharma. Our scriptures tell us that: “To follow the Vedas, to act according to the fundamental principles of our scriptures, to entertain truthful and pious thoughts and thus to develop the virtues in us is Dharma”. To act according to whatever is necessary and conducive to the realization of the eternal truth, the Soul within us is also Dharma.

To achieve it, we have been asked to cultivate various virtues, to endeavour to manifest them in our daily lives. Now these virtues have been explained at length in our scriptures. We have been advised to cultivate the ten divine qualities of righteous conduct. The BhagavadGita, the most popularly acknowledged scripture, also clearly mentions at various places the different virtues that we should strive to attain. We should read these, think and meditate on them. Let us introspect and find out whether we have them in the requisite measure and if there is any deficiency in us, let us try to make it good. Let us turn our back on all evils. Let us discipline our intellect. This is how each one has been told to lead s full and orderly life.

To bring about a healthy and well-balances mental condition properly restraining our emotions and evil tendencies is also the meaning and function of “DHARMA”. Considering this “DHARMA” as the VERY FOUNDATION of life, and ordering “artha” and “kama’, in accordance with it and fully manifesting in out lives all the virtuous qualities and regularly pursuing the Ultimate Goal, to strive for “Moksha”, the last and final “Purushartha” – this is the while picture of life. This, in short, is the concept of an Integrated Man. This is a task which requires consistency. A person who is solely concerned with “artha” and “kama” is a dissipated man. The one who thinks about the sustenance of the society, one who possesses qualities essential for the integrity of the social order, one who earns wealth and enjoys pleasures without upsetting the balance of society, and one who with restrained and concentrated mind purses any path of worship suited to his aptitude, and by adoring any one of the forms of God, strives to attain the final good of life, is a total or Integrated Man.

In the strife-torn world of today, the spirit to brotherhood is totally lacking. For putting an end to this sorry state of affairs and to bring about a condition of world-peace we will have to take recourse to this fourfold “Purushartha”. There is no other alternative. For this, we should ourselves become worthy of telling the whole world that eternal truth lies in the fourfold “Purushartha”. It is our responsibility to see that by our example and conduct, we educate the whole humanity in the subject of the eternal truth.

This is absolutely necessary. We shall never make any headway in this by indiscriminately aping the west or by the pursuit of unrestrained “Earth Kama”. We shall have to devise ways and means to keep under check this tendency so that a well-ordered society based on the fourfold system, where we shall have opportunities for bringing out the best in us emerges. This alone will do good for the world as a whole.

The Communist today boast that they alone have world philosophy on the strength of which their call for ‘unit of the Proletariat of the World’ is based. Indian philosophy does not discriminate between the working and non-working classes. It calls upon every individual to develop himself into an integral man by following the fourfold “Purushartha”. That is why we say that our traditional life-values and culture have the inherent power of addressing the whole humanity without any discrimination. To acquire this capacity within ourselves, to equip each one of us for this noble task, for the welfare of the world – so that we become better instruments to carry out the Divine Purpose of establishing a well-ordered, well-knit and integrated society, where men will be truthful and self-confident and worthy followers of the fourfold “Purushartha”, is the prime need of the hour.

The world will not follow our ideas, however great, by our merely proclaiming them. It will be of no avail to explain our noble principles to a world which has become totally indifferent to the gentle qualities of humanity, because of its being power-drunk and overwhelmed by affluence and pleasure-seeking; we may have to use the sanctions of force also in our endeavour to persuade them to follow the truth, so that the animal instincts in them could be curbed. Today we see the preponderance of animal instincts in men. Man is no more than a domesticated animal. Only one who has the inward and outward capacity, one who has realized himself, had acquired mastery over his senses, is virtuous, can influence others, can attract them on account of his inner Soul-power and guide them. We must create individuals endowed with such qualities; this ultimate objective in our view, we should organize the society and make it strong and powerful in such a way that it will be happy but not pleasure-seeking, will be prosperous but not directionless.

Prompted by the this kind of high ideology, let us discourage people pursuing demoniac ways in their eagerness to ape the west, inspiring them at the same time to develop their divine nature. Only then they will be competent to show the path of wisdom to our country, society and the humanity. He, who makes it a life mission to devote to this task according to his ability and capacity, is a servant of humanity, a great benefactor of his country. It will be an ideal thing if we engage ourselves in such an endeavour. This propounder of the concept of Integral Humanism Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya was a great thinker and philosopher. He clearly showed us what an Integral Man is. Creation of such an Integral Man was his mission.

(Based on a speech of Sri Guruji at the Deendayal Upadhaya Sanatana Dharma Vidyalaya, Kanpur on 22nd Dec., 1972).

Courtesy: Deendayal Upadhyaya’s Integral Humanism: documents, interpretations, comparisons, New  Delhi: Deendayal Research Institute, 1992, M.S.Golwalkar “Integral Man: Bharatiya Concept, pg:63-69, Edited by Sri Devendra Swarup.

Nanaji makes Gramswaraj a reality

Ed Note : This article was written when Nanaji was alive and therefore the article is in present tense.

Nanaji makes Gramswaraj a reality
The savant of Chitrakoot – By Sangeet Verma


Chitrakoot is famous for its significant role in the exile of Sri Rama. It was in these forests of Chitrakoot that Sri Rama spent a large time of his exile. This made Chitrakoot a place of devotion and faith for Hindus worldwide. However in recent years, apart from its religious significance, life for the villagers in this holy place gradually lost relevance with the teachings of Sri Rama. The dense forests disappeared with time, agriculture lost its profitability and governance was limited to tax collections and VIP visits. Poverty grew with increasing unemployment and water shortage ruined agriculture. Bandits controlled the area and spirituality shrunk to religious shrines and temples. By the early seventies, Chitrakoot became a dry and poverty-struck area with temples and shrines as the only source of income.

nanaji-deshmukhIt was in 1969 that Nanaji Deshmukh visited Chitrakoot. He was moved to see the pathetic condition of the society in the karmabhoomi of Sri Rama. He sat by the holy river Mandakini, and resolved to change the picture of Chitrakoot. Nanaji gave up an illustrious political carrier, politely refusing a ministerial birth offered by the then Prime Minister Morarji Desai and announced his retirement from active politics. He returned to Chitrakoot to lay down the foundation of Deendayal Research Institute now famous as DRI. Named after the famous thinker and organiser Deendayal Upadhyaya and designed to implement development programmes through his vision of ‘Integral Humansim’, DRI was aimed at rural development and research, targeting villages around Chitrakoot. Nanaji laid down the objectives of DRI, aiming at complete independence of villages and villagers in agriculture, water resources, health, moral character, education and employment. His vision was to design a system of development based on local knowledge and technology and enhancing the same for the prosperity of the locals rather than invite external investments. The challenges were massive and the primary challenge was to win over the trust of the villagers in order to prepare them for the change.

Work started with minimum resources and maximum efforts. The primary focus was on making agriculture a profitable venture as Nanaji believed that only prosperity can make a happy society. A meeting of farmers from 19 villages was called and a decision to create local dams to sustain rainwater was taken. Men, women and children contributed to the call and before the rains could arrive, dams had come up in every possible location. Interestingly, no cement, concrete or iron was used for the purpose and only local stones and mud was used. Many ‘leaders’ laughed at the idea and said that these dams will not even stand the first rains. But they did, and are strongly standing till date. The experiment has recharged the entire ground water system around Chitrakoot and even in the months of May and June, local wells carry 10-15 feet of water. Nanaji went further to launch Krishi Vikas Kendras (KVKs) resource and research centres aimed at transforming unprofitable landholdings of poor farmers into profitable ones. The KVKs helped the poor farmers harvest rainwater, use latest methods of agriculture and provided knowledge and resources for the same. They also created Seed Villages in a cluster of villages and Seed Clubs at village levels where farmers could get better seeds for better yields in their own villages, rather than awaiting government machinery to supply them. These villages are now not only meeting the seeds requirements of their own village but also supplying the surplus seeds to nearby villages that provide good income to the growers. The members of the Seed Clubs exchange their seeds for food grains within the village (for1 kg seed they take 1.25 kg food grain from farmers).

Nanaji’s focus on education was clear since the time he established the first Saraswati Shishu Mandir in Gorakhpur in his days as a Pracharak. In Chitrakoot, he has ensured that not only do the students get good education to earn a happy living, the same education evolves them as responsible citizens and integral components of a happy human race and not just money making machines that work under the pressure of a mad market frenzy. The pre-primary education begins at Nanhi Duniya or the ‘little world’ where children in the age of 3 to 5 years come not to study, but to experience nature. They play with everything from colours, balloons to geographic models, maps and toys, and learn by interaction rather than reading and writing. Nanhi Duniya is an interactive world that teaches important lessons of the world to toddlers while playing with nature. It has interactive and play-based models and galleries on themes of geography, history, zoology, sports and yoga, swimming, words and numbers, and art and creativity. Primary education in Chitrakoot begins at Surendra Pal Vidyalaya where the children study standard curriculum. The hostel accommodations here are designed as family units. Ten students stay in a flat as a family, with their responsibility assigned to an aged couple called Guru Mata-Pita who ensure that the children get a family atmosphere and do not feel isolated in a big world. They are also responsible for inculcating cultural and moral values in these children. Each family is provided with a cook. For post secondary education, Nanaji founded the first rural university in India, the Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya Vishwavidyalaya. This university has state-of-the-art courses and equipments, including a fully equipped Geographical Information System Lab in its Geology department.

Nanaji believed that only a healthy society can be prosperous. Thus came into existence the Aarogya Dhaam, a world class comprehensive health care and research centre that focuses on serving through naturopathy, yoga, and Ayurveda. The many components of Aarogya Dhaam include the Aayurveda Sadan (meant for Ayurvedic treatments and research), The Nidan Sadan (Out Patients Department), The Yoga Sadan (for yogic cure and training), the Ras Shala (where locally grown herbs are used for preparing ayuvedic medicines), Swasthya Kutir (health cottages that offer five star facilities with programmes for healthy physical, mental and emotional recovery), Matri Sadan (maternity and paediatric unit), Swasthya Sadan (In Patients Department), a fully furnished dental unit, Aahar Vihar Sadan (canteen), a spawning herbal garden spreading many acres, and a large library and documentation centre. Located on the hills of Chitrakoot surrounded by forests and overlooking the holy Kamtanathji mountain, this health centre with its lush green lawns, gushing waterfalls and picturesque surroundings are a feast to the eye. It is clearly aimed at handing over a suffering body to mother nature, mentally, emotionally, spiritually and physically, helping it with the very components derived from nature in the form of herbal medicines and cure, thereby bringing a comprehensive recovery of the entire human system that heals the mind, body, heart and soul, permanently. The DRI has also developed and designed a pack of 34 local herbal medicines that are derived from local knowledge and have been found to be very effective in curing frequently occurring ailments and diseases. They call it Dadi Maa Ka Batua. This kit has gained tremendous popularity in the villages and has helped save the villagers from expensive treatment and medicines. Adjacent to the Aarogya Dhaam is a well-maintained and well-equipped Gau Shaala where cows of different Indian breeds are kept and conservation of superior genetic germ plasm and their propagation for milk production and agricultural needs is done, specially for breeds which are in danger of extinction. The Gau Shaala is also engaged in maintaining pure Indian breeds through artificial insemination of cows and bullocks for better and quality milk production in order to make the Indian cow an economically feasible, useful and profitable option.

Nanaji’s commitment to Chitrakoot further extends to its people in addressing their employment needs. His vision of providing local options of livelihood with minimum investment and maximum profits resulted in the institutionalisation of Udyamita Vidyapeeth, an entrepreneurship development and research centre that works round the clock for developing, training, and establishing low cost and high income enterprises in the rural areas with the help of self-help groups and individuals. At present this industrial training centre is providing training on fruits and vegetable processing, dal poha and lai production, oil expeller units, readymade garments, screen and offset printing, MCR tiles, sakar blocks, processing of cereals and pulses industry (PCPI), flour mills, cane and bamboo craft, fabrication, computer training, bakery products, soap and detergent production, hand made paper making, and radio electronics. Rural youth from all over the region come here and get trained in the areas of their individual interest. Training is provided in state-of-the-art class rooms and laboratories that help them understand every aspect of their future livelihood. They then go to their respective villages and establish the ventures giving employment to themselves and many others. The focus in designing all industrial solutions is keeping them a low investment enterprise based on local raw materials in order to ensure sustained supplies and profits.

A prosperous society is incomplete without its moral and cultural values. DRI has set-up Ram Darshan, a unique interpretation centre of the Ramayana, based on the life and teachings of Sri Rama. Through its unmatched paintings, sculptures, collections and crafts, Ram Darshan not only looks deeper into the meaning of Ramayana, it helps one understand the universal acceptability of his teachings and their relevance in today’s life and society. It is a mirror that tells us where we went wrong, and how the course can be corrected. It is a bridge that connects the islands of religion, knowledge, karma and spirituality for the supreme benefit of a glorious society. In order to ensure that his good work is sustainable, Nanaji, introduced Samaj Shilpi Dampattis, newly wed graduate couples who have a commitment for community service, that live in the villages and look after the work of DRI in a cluster of five villages. The couples are responsible for overall implementation of the DRI programmes.

Kalam and Nanaji

It is in Chitrakoot that Nanaji has shown the world that religion is meant more for the benefit of society than individuals. He has proved that pilgrimages like Chitrakoot should not just be places of worship, but also icons of development and self reliance. He has shown that ideals of Integral Humanism as propagated by thinkers like Pandit Deendayal Upadhayaya, can be made a living reality. Gandhiji’s dream of Gram Swaraj has finally been brought true, not by a congressman, but by a swayamsewak. Last but not the least, Nanajii has shown this generation what is meant by the life of a sage spent in penance.