Tag Archives: Kashmir accession

Brigadier Rajinder Singh –The First Recipient of the ‘Maha Vir Chakra’

Compiled By: Shri Ramakrishna Prasad

The date, 26 October, does not stir anything significant in the minds and hearts of the majority of this country. It is not a special birthday or a religious holiday that is etched in the conscience of India. One has to do a Google search to realise that on this day in 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir signed the Instrument of Accession to India as the region was under siege from Pakistani forces.

The story that many won’t find through a Google search, however, is that of Brigadier Rajinder Singh and his band of warriors who died defending the Kashmir valley. He was martyred the same day Maharaja Hari Singh signed that historic document uniting Jammu and Kashmir with India, a sacrifice that honoured the simple words of that contract. On 30 December 1949, he became independent India’s first recipient of the Maha Vir Chakra, when he was awarded the honour posthumously by the then Army Chief Field Marshall K.M. Cariappa. The Maha Vir Chakra (literally great warrior medal) is the second highest military decoration in India, after the Param Vir Chakra, and is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air. Yet this warrior is barely known to the nation he served, let alone outside the Jammu region.

Born on June 14, 1899, Rajinder Singh hailed from the Duggar or the Dogra people of Jammu, a community deeply entrenched in the armed forces of India for several generations. Rajinder Singh graduated from the Prince of Wales College, now the GGM Science College, Jammu.  He was commissioned as Second Lieutenant in the J&K State Forces on Jun 14, 1921. A remarkable officer of indomitable spirit, he was appointed as the Chief of Army Staff of the J&K State Forces on September 25, 1947, replacing Major General H.L. Scott.  

On 21 October 1947, Pakistani forces besieged Jammu and Kashmir after Maharaja Hari Singh declared independence. They tried to take control of the region by force, hoping that the dominant Muslim community would support them. They entered Kashmir via Baramulla and targeted the Sikh and Kashmiri pandits, committing rape, murder and arson in a bid to ‘purge’ the land.

Under siege, on 22 October 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh ordered Brigadier Singh, who served as the chief of army staff of Jammu and Kashmir, to defend the state “till the last man and the last bullet”. The Brigadier just saluted and walked away. He gathered 110 soldiers and moved to Muzaffarabad to counter the invading force of over 6,000 militiamen. He used guerrilla tactics to delay their advance, blowing up the Uri bridge and stalling them in Mahura and Rampur, inflicting heavy casualties. For four days, Brigadier Singh and his brave jawans hindered the progress of the Pakistani invaders. This may have been the first time in contemporary military history where an army chief personally led soldiers in combat.

As Brigadier Singh and his men fought, on 26 October, Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession joining the Union of India. The Indian military rushed in to back Brigadier Singh; however, just hours away from his position, he was ambushed at Buniyar and fatally wounded and died. He had held fort and repelled the invaders long enough for the Indian Army to push them back, saving thousands from a brutal onslaught. He carried out his orders to the letter, setting an unparalleled example of courage and patriotism. “If Brig Rajinder Singh had not stopped the Pakistani invaders, if he didn’t sacrifice his life, Kashmir may not have been a part of India,” says Dr Karan Singh.

Accession of Jammu and Kashmir with India is Full & Final…

Accession of J&K with India is Full & Final…

Maharaja Hari Singh acceded  Jammu & Kashmir to Dominion of India on 26 Oct 1947 under a legitimate instrument of accession. The Instrument of Accession Signed  by Maharaja of Jammu & Kashmir Raja Hari Singh was the same as was signed by other rulers of the  other princely States of Indian Dominion .

Similarly, the acceptance of the Instrument of Accession by the Lord Mountbatten  was also identical in respect of all such instruments. Lord Mounbatten , the then Governor General of India signed the acceptance on 27 October 1947 as ……… ” I do hereby accept this Instrument of Accession dated this 27th day of October , nineteen hundred and forty seven”.

The relevant clauses of the Instrument of Accession signed by Maharaja Hari Singh, to support Jammu- Kashmir’s full and final legal integration with India are:-

Clause No. 1 – “I hereby declare that I accede to the Dominion of India with the intent that the Governor General of India, the Dominion Legislature, the Federal Court and any other Dominion authority established for the purposes of the Dominion shall by virtue of this my Instrument of Accession, but subject always to the terms thereof and for the purposes only of the Dominion”.

Clause No. 9 – “I hereby declare that I execute this Instrument on behalf of this State and that any reference in this Instrument to me or to the Ruler of the State is to be construed as including a reference to my heirs and successors”.

Clause-1 made Jammu Kashmir a permanent part of Indian union. The state Constituent assembly on feb.6 1956 has also ratified the state’s accession to India.
Clause-3 of J&K constitution, the state of J&K is and shall be an integral part of the Union of India.
Clause-4,the territory of the state shall comprise all the territories which on the 15th day of August,1947,were under the sovereignty or suzerainty of the Ruler of the  J&K state,

 Later Maharaja Hari Singh ji said :-
   The terms of this my Instrument of Accession shall not be varied by any amendment of the Act or of the Indian Independence Act ,1947 , unless such amendment is accepted by me  an Instrument supplementary to this Instrument.


The Maharaja had no where talked of any dispute regarding accession of J&K.

The J&K state Constituent assembly on feb.6 1956 has also ratified the state’s accession to Indian Dominion


Pt.Nehru, Lord Mountbatten, Queen of Britain and even British Parliament had no rights to raise objection as per the provisions of India Independent Act.(Special status to J&K is the violation of India Independent Act)

Pakistan attacked Jammu-Kashmir & Blunders by Pt.Nehru
On Oct.22,1947, Pakistani Army attacked J&K and captured 83,000 Sq.Km area of J&K and more than 50,000 Hindus & Sikhs were killed by Pakistani Army. Instead of retaliation in self defence, Pt.Nehru went to UN under chapter 35 on UN charter.Pt.Nehru appointed Sheikh Mohd.Abdullah  as Prime-minister of J&K and forced Maharaja Hari Singh to leave the state of J&K.With the consent of Pt. Nehru, Sheikh Abdullah  did not allow our Army to vacate  the area of J&K captured by Pakistan and announced  cease-fire on 1st-January 1949

Article-370 (Special Status for J&K)
The format of the instrument of accession was the same as was executed by other heads of all princely states. The govt.of India agreed that’ final decision with regard to accession would be taken by the Constituent Assembly of J&K, and  in the intervening period “a temporary provision had to be made in the constitution of India”.Thus ,article 370 was born out by the evil designs of politicians (Sheikh Abdullah & Pt.Nehru) Art.370 became a tool for anti-nationals in J&K  & created problems rather than the solution..This article provides  separate constitution & a separate flag that flies side by side with the Indian tricolor in J&K.It is the example of “one country with two flags and two constitutions”.


•       Separate constitution and separate flag are the by-product of Article 370

•      Dr.S.P.Mookerjee had significantly observed: What you are going to do may lead to Balkanization of India, may strengthening the hands of those who do not believe that India is a nation but combination of separate nationalities

•      Dr.B.R.Ambedkar,chairman of drafting committee ,said “I can’t be a party to such a betrayal of national interest”., Maulana Hasrat Mohani member of constituent assembly on Oct.17,1949 had warned against any move that accords a difference status to Jammu Kashmir on the score of religion and said, “The grant of a special status would enable Kashmir to assume independence afterwards.

•      For what is implied by more autonomy today will mean ‘Independence’  tomorrow,i.e.pre-1953 position (no election commission of India,no.supreme court,no IAS and IPS,limited applicability of Art.352 & 356,no controller and Auditor General ,change of nomenclature etc.(CM to PM )

•      Need of Hour:–
. Abolish Article 370 .
. Full integration of  J&K with India   i.e no separate constitution,no.separate flag,
.No  Autonomy, No Self rule.

 ***”From Accession to full integration” celebarate Oct.26 as Accession Day****

Videos on Ethnic cleansing of Hindus in J&K

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KydLmtM3obA ( Part 1)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mpAGDGPP9NQ ( Part 2)

Chronology of Kashmir