Tag Archives: Pandit Deendayal

A Continuation of Bharatiya Thought Tradition

(Courtesy: Dr.Mahesh Chandra Sharma)

Deendayal Upadhyaya emerged as a great political thinker in the second half of the 20th century, at a time when a number of ideologies held sway in the world. The ideas thrown up by the 16th Century Renaissance global has assumed a dimension. The visible world has ceased to be an unsolved mystery. Adventurous individuals had undertaken journeys around the Globe. Science, materialism and humanism had thrown a challenge to the theological view of the world. Faith and the realm of the mysterious had been shaken by science. Rationalism superseded faith and man abandoned the secure shelter of God’s Grace. The belief in secularism, democracy and individualism gained ascendancy challenging the established rule of theocracy. It was Europe in a new incarnation.

Freed of the fear of God, man set out to conquer nature and the world. European colonies were established in the newly discovered territories. These colonies however witnessed a serious assault on imperialism mounted by irrepressible sentiments of nationalism.

Western knowledge and sciences extended their reach to the Asian and African continents through the spread of Western imperialism. Western contact decisively influenced ideas in the countries of Asia and Africa, but the Asian nationalist mind treated any acceptance of western ideological supremacy as an insult to its unique ethos and genius. Hence, it rejected western ideologies. Deendayal Upadhyaya was a product of a similar nationalist thought processed in Bharat.

Bharatiya Reawakening

Raja Ram Mohan Roy is generally to be the leader of the Bharatiya Renaissance. Brahmo Samaj, Arya Samaj, Prarthana Samaj, the Ramakrishna Mission were the movements that spearheaded this renaissance. Swami Dayananda, Vivekananda, Ramtithra and Sri Ramakrishna Paramahamsa who around the Bharatiya society out of its stupor into self-recognition. The great reformist leaders of the time, however, were also greatly influenced by the English education they received. The political movement born out of this reawakening was split since its inception. One Nationalist stream rejected the British rule along with its concomitant influences, whereas the other accepted western ideological content while rejecting the British rule.

The chief spokesmen of the first stream were Lokmanya Tilak and Maharshi Aurobindo who emphasized the excellence (superiority) of native knowledge and way of life. They talked of पुनश्च हरि ऊँ and वेदान्तिक स्वराज्य. For them, the Bharatiya intellectual tradition was on a par with a Greek which provided the basis for European thought. The Bharatiya tradition was for them, like the Greek, self-sufficient and didn’t need any Western props. This insistence on intellectual independence was inherent in the resounding declaration – “Self rule is our birthright”. When these great men talked of native genius they unambiguously meant the Hindu philosophical tradition, values and world view. The freedom fighters in the Tilak mould were all votaries of this nationalist stream of thought.

People like Dadabhai Nauroji and Gopalkrishna Gokhale, however, considered the British rule as blessing and treated Western science and knowledge as the greatest achievement of mankind. They were certainly for self-rule but for self-rule based on Western institutions. Dadabhai Nauroji expounded his views on the subject in his famous book “Onus-British Rule in Bharat”. He wanted an Bharat ruled by Indians on the British parliamentary model. People like Nauroji and Gokhale didn’t evaluate Western knowledge in terms of native/foreign but rather as modernist. They wanted an amalgamation of the Bharatiya and Western philosophies.

Deendayal Upadhyaya entered politics under the influence of the Tilak school of thought. Dr. Keshav Baliram Hedgewar, the founder of R.S.S, was a Congressman in the Tilak tradition and wanted Shri Aurobindo to takeover this nationalist movement after Tilak’s death. Sri Aurobindo however did not agreed to this. The politics of Mahatma Gandhi accorded with Gokhale’s thinking even though some pople think that it was close to Gokhale in political aims but followed Tilak’s methods to realize these aims Dr. Hedgewar parted company with both to found R.S.S. for the rejuvenation of the Hindu Nation. Deendayal Upadhyaya represented the Hindu nationalist view of the R.S.S in politics and believed in the purity and strength of the Bharatiya culture. To understand Deendaya; Upadhaya’s political philosophy, it is essential to acquaint ourselves with this cultural tradition in some detail.

The Philosophical Tradition

The Bharatiya philosophical tradition rests on the saying: वादे वादे जायते तत्त्वबोधो बोधे बोधे भासते चन्द्रचूडः i.e., discussion and exchange of ideas alone lead to the knowledge of the essential. The Dharma that evolved out of the Vedas, the Upanishads, the Ramayan and the Mahabharat….the eternal Arya Dharma came to be known as Hindu Dharma in course of time. This Sanatana Dharma was never, in strict terms, an institutional religion. Hence, different sages and philosophers contributed their varied, at times antithetical ideas to the mainstream of the Hindu philosophical corpus. This expansive process gave birth to different philosophical expositions. The mainstream philosophical tradition can be broadly divided into the theistic and the atheistic world views. The atheistic view is represented by three sub-streams… the Lokayat, the Buddhist and the Jain philosophies. The theistic has six main schools of thought.

The basis for this division into the theistic and the atheistic is provided by the Vedas. The theistic tradition treated the Vedas as the final authority whereas the atheistic refused to accord the status of ‘infallibity’ to the Vedas. Maharishi Charvaka is recognized as the first expounder of the atheist school of thought. In his opinion action (‘Karma’) should not spring from either the fear of hell or consequences in the next birth or from the hope of reward in heaven or the next birth.

यावत् जीवेत् सुखं जीवेत् ऋणं कृत्वा घृतं पिबेत् |
भस्मीभूतस्य देहस्य पुनरागमनं कुत : ||
(“Live in happiness and comfort as long as you live; take loans and drink ghee. There is no rebirth once the body is consigned to flames”).

Buddhism and Jainism, however, inspite of their refusal to accept the Vedas as the final authority, are not materialistic, but rather spiritualistic. They are anti-God, but believe in “Nirvana” all the same. Actually Bhagwan Buddha revolted against dogma and the distortion introduced in the Vedic ritualism and upheld the validity of what he called experienced truth. He elucidated four “eternal truths” only. With the lapse of time, Shankaracharya assimilated the Buddhist philosophy into the Vedic thought and declared Buddha to be an incarnation of Vishnu.

निन्दसि यज्ञ विधेहरर श्रुतिजानम्
सद्य हृदय दर्शित पशुधातम् |
केशव घृत बुद्ध शरीरं , जय जगदीश हरे ( जयदेव कृत गीत गोविन्द)
(“Oh Krishna, to you, who to condemn the Vedic ritual and animal sacrifice appeared in the incarnation of Buddha pay my obeisance”).

Bhagwan Mahavira, the acknowledged founder of Jainism, also questions the Vedic authority. The Jains treat the Shraman tradition as parallel to the Brahminical tradition. Bhagwan Mahavira, according to them, is the Adipurusha.

As per the Jain belief, Bhagwan Mahavira was the originator of the rule of law in the later half of the eon. He was the one to have taught Indians to earn their livelihood through sixfold functions of agriculture, commerce, governance, industry, sculpture etc.

Jainism also believes in progress of the soul and rebirth. It is considered anti-Vedic primarily because it raised its voice against ostentation and the violence inherent in the Vedic rituals. The Jain Syadvad and Anekant Darshan integrate Jainism in the Hindu philosophical tradition.

The theistic tradition is represented mainly by six schools namely, Vaisheshik, Nyaya, Samkhya,Yoga, Purva Mimamsa and Uttar Mimamsa. Maharishis Kanad, Gautam, Kapil, Patanjali, Jaimini and Vyasa respectively are their expounders.

The six sages, with their unique logic and emphasis, elaborate upon the element basic to Jiva, Jagat, atman and Paramatman mentioned in the Vedic literature in their respective philosophies. It is these six schools of philosophy that threw up the various Dvaita and Advaita sects and sub-sects like the Vaishnava, the Shaiva and the Shakta. Jagadguru Shankaracharya sought to establish the basic underlying unity of these sects and subsects. That’s why Shankaracharya enjoys the unique quasi-founder status of the present day Sanatana Dharma.

We witness a gradual turning away from the ‘gross’ to the ‘fine’ in the Bharatiya philosophy. Wordly prosperity and the desire to lead a rich wordly life got entangled in an analysis of Being. The Greek invasion exposed the dangers of the disregard of worldly life. It was in these times tha Acharya Chanakya gave us his immortal creation, the Arthashastra. This great book expounded a philosophy that was antithetical to the lofty soul-principle and non-violent ethical ideals of Bharatiya philosophy. Kautilya’s Arthashastra reflected the needs of the times in which it was conceived.

After Chankya, Bharatiya philosophy could not continue its march inviolate. The unifying linguistic vehicles of Pali, Prakrit and Sanskrit no longer remained available to the regional saints and learned men to carry forward the unified growth of the earlier tradition. The Bharatiya philosophical current continued to flow in the medieval ages with the regional streams sometimes merging into it and sometimes splitting away.

The Medieval and Modern Bharatiya Thought

The Islamic and the Hindu thoughts coalesced in the medieval times to give birth to the Sufi literature. With its ideological and practical culture, Islam also brought into Bharat its imperialist politics. Hence the coming together of Islam and Hinduism was not without its bitterness. During the Islamic period of Bharatiya history, saints like Swami Vidyaranya, Tulasidas, Surdas, Ramdas, Tukaram and Eknath carried forward the Bharatiya intellectual tradition. The medieval Bharatiya thought process, as opposed to its past creativity appears quite weak, defensive and to a certain extent reactionary. It is worth quoting Swami Vivekananda in this context:

Most saints of the sects established by Ramanand, Kabir, Dadu, Chaitanya and Nanal, despite their differences, continued to spread the message of human equality and universal brotherhood. Most of their energies were, however, spent in countering the rampaging Islamic influence. They had hence no time to generate new ideas and hopes. Even though they had a considerable measure of success in demolishing Islamic fundamentalism, theirs remained essentially a struggle for survival. They were defensive”.

Behind every period of cultural Renaissance in the history of Bharat, we witness a resurgence of political unity which in turn strengthened and fulfilled the spiritual aspirations of the people. But before the advent of the Maratha and Sikh political rule, the spiritual awakening was essentially reactionary in nature. One shall look in vain even for a touch of intellectual luminosity in the culture that pervaded the Mughal courts of Pune and Lahore. There cannot be even a distant comparison of this culture with the intellectual vigour of the Malwa and Viajayanagar Empires. The medieval period could be called the darkest period in the Bharatiya history. Both these empires, which encapsulated the frenzied hatred of the people against the Muslims and shone like meteors in the Bharatiya firmament, lost all their luminosity the moment they succeeded in smashing the much hated Mughal empire.

The contact with the British brought together the Bharatiya and the Western thoughts. The Bharatiya reawakening was a product of this meeting of the Orient with the Occident.

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was thrown up by the same Bharatiya cultural, intellectual tradition which has been traced above. Deendayal was influenced most by the Sanatan Dharma stream of thought. His writings and thought richly contextualize the essential Vedantic thought of the Vedas, the Puranas, the Smritis and the Upanishads. His terminology reflects the same Vedic paradigm. He received his intellectual grooming from two of his great contemporaries – the second chief of the R.S.S., Sri M.S.Golwalkar, and Sri Umakant Keshave Apte. Intellectually he rejected the atheistic Lokayat Buddhist and Jain Philosophies as well as the Muslim and Western influences. There is no trace of any of these influences in any of his writings.

Deshik Shashtra

Deendayal’s thinking reflects a natural affinity to the ideas of Vivekananda, Tilak and Aurobindo. He refers to Gandhiji and Vinoba Bhave also, but only marginally. He draws heavily on Tilak’s commemorative volume entitled “Deshik Shastra” book that includes both Vedanta and the social philosophy expounded in the Vedic literature, commenting on this book, Deendayal Upadhyaya says:

It is needed today that people are told about the Bharatiya contribution in the field of physical sciences too. About forty years ago Sri Badrishah Duldharia published a volume called “Deshik Shastra” after receiving instruction from the philosopher saint Sri 108 Somvari Babaji Maharaj. He was inspired to write this book by Lokmanya Tilak’s Karmayog Shastra. Basing his Karmayog Shastra on the Bhagwad Gita,, Lokanya Tilak pulled the Bharatiya philosophical tradition out of “Nivratti” into “Pravritti”. The eternal truths propounded in Bharat were brought out the Himalayan caves into the arena of action”.

Deshik Shastra discusses the basic principles underlying a national code of conduct. Lokmanya Tilak himself lauded the exposition of the subject after going through the book’s manuscript. Karmayog Shastra and Deshik Shastra can be said to be complementary to eachother. Every individual engaged in the task of nation-building must study both these tests.

Deendayal Upadhyaya incorporated the philosophy of Ekatma Manavvad as a guiding principle in the political manifesto of the Jana Sangh after deep deliberation and study spanning over two decades. Referring to Shankaracharya and Chanakya in the introduction, he says:

Today Iam reminded of two great men who revolutionized Bharatiya life. One is Jagadguru Shankaracharya who, armed with the message of Sanatana Dharma, set out to demolish immoral conduct in Bharatiya life, and the other Chanakya, who sought to unite the scattered Republics pursuing their respective political courses into a nation on the principles of Arthashastra. In a somewhat similar context today, we present the philosophy of Ekatma Manavvad as a counter-point to the sterile Western view of man – a philosophy that aims to a comprehensive, all round development of man“.

Deendayal Upadhyaya seeks to establish a new Prasthapan tray of Shankar’s Vedanta, Kautiya’s Arthashastra and his own Ekatma Manavvad.

(Courtesy: Deendayal Upadhyaya’s Integral Humanism: documents, interpretations, comparisons, New Delhi: Deendayal Research Institute, 1992, Integral Humanism – A Study, pg:103-108, Edited by Sri.Devendra Swarup).

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Film on Pandit Deendayal Upadhyay ‘s Integral Humanism by Dr. Mahesh Chandra Sharma:

Integral Man : Bharatiya Concept

एकात्म मानव : भारतीय चिंतन

For obvious reasons, it has become necessary for us to reflect once again on Indian life values at this juncture. So long as we were subjugated nation, the dominant thought in Indian minds was about our country, our nation, our identity. It was generally believed that attainment of our nation a’s freedom, and its reconstruction, called for the services of virtuous people – people who were free from blemishes, selfless, full of sacrifice and devotion. In those days, workers of political parties used to live a life of simplicity and sacrifice. None ever dreamt of any departure from this tradition. When the leadership of the nation rested in the hands of such eminent men of high character, integrity, and selfless nature, our nation could manifest its sacred and glorious tradition and would reach the height of prosperity, it was believed. But unbridled power brings in its wake many a vice. It is said that of the many intoxicants, the toxic effect of power is the most harmful. It can be said that in today’s public life qualities like simplicity, selflessness and sacrifice have become conspicuous by their absence. Corruption is rampant. Without quoting specific instances, it can generally be stated that of the people in public life today, there are many whose public activities are strikingly at variance with the well-recognized standards.

Since a few years back, it is being said that is a “Crisis of Character” in our country. But nobody takes seriously to the task of character-building. We expect ordinary men to be of good character, full of virtues and of a selfless nature. That is why, probably, even acts of misfeasance were made punishable under our Penal Code. But nobody seems to be concerned about the many major scandals involving persons in high positions. This is indeed a paradox!

In order that the day-to-day activities of the common man may be carried on and his family and the society may be properly sustained, it is necessary that their primary needs are guaranteed. Arrangements for meeting the requirements of material prosperity should commence from those who are at the bottom. Only after satisfying the elementary wants of the people at the lower strata of society, should we turn our attention to those in the higher strata. In order to achieve this, even if it becomes necessary for those at the top to reduce some of their luxuries and even necessaries, it should be done ungrudgingly. They should willingly accept this kind of self-imposed control on their consumption, for the sake of the general good. But in the matter of character-building, the order is reversed. There is need for is to have people at the top who are the very models in self-control, simplicity and virtuous conduct so that these essential qualities percolate down to the foundation and saturate the various strata below. But it is seen today that whilst the higher classes are indulging in all kinds of luxuries, they expect ordinary men, near the base to be fill of character, and self-control. This is quite opposite of what it ought to be. This way it is not possible to have real progress and proper sustenance of society.

It is also seen that, so long as we were under subjugation, on account of our national self-respect, endeavours were made to mould our lives according to our tradition. At that time, the compulsions of the situation inevitably brought us into contact with foreigners, and the impact it produced on our minds, was one of antagonism to foreign rule. But as soon as foreign rule came to an end, the great inspiration that kept the foreign influences under check, also gave way. Our entire life pattern was transformed. Whilst it is understandable that contacts with different people of the world call for some kind of ‘give and take’ which is so necessary in this business, it was a one-way traffic in our case. We were at the receiving end, and we have been receiving things indiscriminately; even unworthy things we did not reject. If we had emulated an Englishman’s patriotism, his other special characteristics such as devotion to duty, duty consciousness, his unbounded energy, etc. there was nothing wrong. But we only copied undesirable aspects, like their outward life-style, their mode of living, etc, with the result that we started condemning everything that is our own, that reflected our ‘self’. This indiscriminate copying is vitiating the whole social life today at very fast rate. This transformation is harmful for our life-style, character building and a sense of duty. In such a situation, it has become essential for us to be reminded of on identity.

But this re-awakening of self-consciousness is not very easy. There are many a difficulties in the way, one being occasioned by the system of education of the past years. The crafty Englishman who introduced this system of education for us had said, “We shall have black Englishmen, here, in India”. Most of us today answer more or less to this description. They despise everything India. If anybody were to say that we in India have great principles of life which are beneficial to the whole of humanity, the educated amongst us, whose only concern is with his self-advancement, is not even prepared to believe it. We should be grateful to God that on some occasions at least our leaders refer to our national life as centuries old. But this is merely confined to talk. Mere words these. Behind these words, there is no sincerity, or determination to place these luminous thoughts before the people or effort to manifest them in their own lives. Therefore, they are mere hollow words, a veil, or a mask.

On account of the influence of the West, it has become fashionable to say, “I do not believe in God, or Dharma”. It is needless to have faith in these things.” It has become fashionable to negate the very fundamentals of our life-structure. There is, need, therefore, for us to ponder whether these people –English Men – who have made these kinds of impressions on our minds, have any higher philosophy, or any philosophy at all to offer.

From the philosophical standpoint, Communism is much talked of today. Let us see what it really means to us. It has propounded certain doctrines. It talks of certain ideas for a social order, and propagate these ideas with great fanfare. They speak about the need of creating a system for distributing happiness equitably. Non-communist countries of the west do not have any such philosophy except perhaps the much-talked of French Revolution declarations like Democracy, Equality, Fraternity, etc., and their wish to model their political, economic and social systems on these principles. But the statement that all men are equal, its one that is contrary to our experience. As we see it, no two individuals are identical; even twins are no alike. True, there can be identity in their physical needs. But to talk of equality in intellect and physical and mental qualities would be contrary to reality of experience. That is why there is a certain fallacy in their philosophy.

Taking their cue from this philosophy – this declaration of equality – the Communists also endeavour to being in an order where equality would prevail. It may be relevant to ask in this context whether human life is confined to this world alone. Is it that man wants only food, shelter and things pleasing to the mind? Is production and distribution of these is only goal in life? The so called democracies and Communist countries of the west differ only in terminologies and nothing else; both declare that life is confined to matter of this world. It means that it is wealth-oriented. Today the main thrust of life is on wealth (artha) and pleasure (kama) artistic and cultural life. After acquiring wealth, it is necessary to protect and enrich it, because desires are never satiated.

As is well-known, life today is full of wealth-producing activity. Preservation and accumulation of wealth is necessary because nobody feels happy merely by entertaining a desire only once. Therefore, it is said, “न जातु कामः कामानां उपभोगेन शाम्यति” – na jatuh kamah kamaanam upbhogena shamyati.” When wood is thrown into the fire, the fire flares up. Similarly our desires also rebound with great force when satisfied. It is our everyday experience that in spite of physical incapacity to enjoy various pleasures, the thirst for them continues to persist. That is why it has been said, “What shall we do Sir, whilst we have grown old, our desires remain young,”तृष्णा न जीर्णा वयमेव जीर्णाः – trushna na jirna vayamev jirnah.” No passion is completely is satiated. It is therefore, that, to satiate these desires, more and more means are acquired and hoarded, and even the property of other is encroached on, when one’s own is not enough. The form of imperialism that we see in the contemporary world is the culmination of man’s unrestrained lust. This tendency gives birth to the desire to occupy other countries by force. As such, there is no hope for peace in the world. It is inevitable that restlessness in man’s mind should manifest itself in his outward activities. Unfulfilled desires lead to a restless mind. That is one of the causes for conflicts in the world. That is one of the causes for conflicts in the world. It has never been seen that by man’s satisfying all kinds of desires, peace will be attained, or the thirst for enjoyment will be over.

In the 16th chapter of the Gita, there is a description of two types of men, the “divine” type and the “demoniac” type. We see in the world today, men in their greed for their wealth pouncing upon each other; nations pouncing upon each other to grab wealth and establish (their) sovereignty over others. This is demoniac tendency – “I have killed X today, I will kill Y tomorrow. Now I have snatched X’s wealth, tomorrow I will deprive Z of his belongings. I am great. I am philanthropist. I sacrifice. There is nobody equal to me.” Even today, on account of a preponderance of “artha” and “kama”, people egoistically proclaim their being Socialists, Communists, Democrats, etc.

We see the living picture of the 16th Chapter of the Gita depicting the divine and demoniac tendencies in human nature. We do not see any divine power or divine qualities in the west. We shall now have to chalk out our way through this kind of a world. Various people have tried to find out various ways. People wanted to mould their lives according to the doctrine of their religious ideal but that did not satisfy them because those religions did not have any fundamental principles or basic philosophy. “There is only one God and he has a Messenger. Have faith in the Messenger and pray to God devotedly and ask for deliverance from all sins”, they say. But why should a person, who is fully engrossed in the pursuit of “artha” and “kama” and does not believe in God, ask forgiveness? In spite of this, he is asked to have faith. Ordinarily, an intelligent man is unable to have such a faith. First his intellect has to be satisfied; then talk to him about faith. “All your intellectual exercises have reached their end. Intellect cannot go any further”. This has to be the way of approach. He believes only what is intellectually supported. If in the beginning they are told to have faith intelligent men would find it unacceptable. Faith can come only when their intellect is satisfied and when they find it can take them no further.

We see various persons from the west engaged in proselytizing activities here in India. In their own countries, Churches are empty and very few people visit them. People have lost faith in them. They arouse no emotions in their inmost beings. They do not feel inspired. We shall have to offer them a formula that will enable them to restrain their demoniac way of life based on wealth and passion (artha and kama).

Let us see if our national and social traditions can show the way. To me, there is no doubt that they can. Our seers and sages of yore have comprehensively deliberated on these problems and have proclaimed that life based exclusively on artha and kama is the life of an animal, is demoniac and therefore to be abandoned. But they also know that it is not possible for one to free oneself completely from artha and kama. The desire for these will continue to occupy men’s minds to some extent. But it is necessary to find out ways and means to see that man may not become demoniac by allowing unrestrained play to artha and kama. That is why we have been told that desires are not satiated by indulging in them. And secondly, man’s expectation of getting happiness by the acquisition of things is illusory as they by themselves are incapable of giving them happiness. Happiness lies within oneself. It is not external. It is on account of our ignorance that we attribute happiness to some external objects, whereas in reality we only use the external object as a medium to taste happiness from the infinite ocean of bliss which is within us.

It is human destiny to experience this state of delight which is within. This is the fundamental principle which our sages have propounded. The one who rids himself of all wordly ties, one who remains unaffected by the attractions of outside objects, he alone can reach this state of eternal happiness. He is a liberated soul. This is ultimate goal of man. But until he reaches that goal, he will have to exert to some extent in this world, in order to satisfy his worldly desires. We shall, however have to ensure, by having proper checks and balances, that this exercise does not transgress the bounds of decency.

To achieve this goal, we have been told to follow the path of Dharma. Of all the definitions of Dharma, the one widely held and accepted, has the following to say: Just as it is necessary for a man to have mental peace and concentration of mind to experience happiness, so also for an individual to live a safe and secure life, a well-ordered social set up is necessary. If the society is well-organised, is united and which, while allowing different types of people freedom to engage themselves in the pursuit of their respective occupations, motivates them to work for their prosperity, security and a high and noble life for the entire society in a spirit of mutual cooperation – that is Dharma. Creating conditions for the sustenance of society is one of the functions of Dharma. The second function is to prompt men to act according to Dharma. Our scriptures tell us that: “To follow the Vedas, to act according to the fundamental principles of our scriptures, to entertain truthful and pious thoughts and thus to develop the virtues in us is Dharma”. To act according to whatever is necessary and conducive to the realization of the eternal truth, the Soul within us is also Dharma.

To achieve it, we have been asked to cultivate various virtues, to endeavour to manifest them in our daily lives. Now these virtues have been explained at length in our scriptures. We have been advised to cultivate the ten divine qualities of righteous conduct. The BhagavadGita, the most popularly acknowledged scripture, also clearly mentions at various places the different virtues that we should strive to attain. We should read these, think and meditate on them. Let us introspect and find out whether we have them in the requisite measure and if there is any deficiency in us, let us try to make it good. Let us turn our back on all evils. Let us discipline our intellect. This is how each one has been told to lead s full and orderly life.

To bring about a healthy and well-balances mental condition properly restraining our emotions and evil tendencies is also the meaning and function of “DHARMA”. Considering this “DHARMA” as the VERY FOUNDATION of life, and ordering “artha” and “kama’, in accordance with it and fully manifesting in out lives all the virtuous qualities and regularly pursuing the Ultimate Goal, to strive for “Moksha”, the last and final “Purushartha” – this is the while picture of life. This, in short, is the concept of an Integrated Man. This is a task which requires consistency. A person who is solely concerned with “artha” and “kama” is a dissipated man. The one who thinks about the sustenance of the society, one who possesses qualities essential for the integrity of the social order, one who earns wealth and enjoys pleasures without upsetting the balance of society, and one who with restrained and concentrated mind purses any path of worship suited to his aptitude, and by adoring any one of the forms of God, strives to attain the final good of life, is a total or Integrated Man.

In the strife-torn world of today, the spirit to brotherhood is totally lacking. For putting an end to this sorry state of affairs and to bring about a condition of world-peace we will have to take recourse to this fourfold “Purushartha”. There is no other alternative. For this, we should ourselves become worthy of telling the whole world that eternal truth lies in the fourfold “Purushartha”. It is our responsibility to see that by our example and conduct, we educate the whole humanity in the subject of the eternal truth.

This is absolutely necessary. We shall never make any headway in this by indiscriminately aping the west or by the pursuit of unrestrained “Earth Kama”. We shall have to devise ways and means to keep under check this tendency so that a well-ordered society based on the fourfold system, where we shall have opportunities for bringing out the best in us emerges. This alone will do good for the world as a whole.

The Communist today boast that they alone have world philosophy on the strength of which their call for ‘unit of the Proletariat of the World’ is based. Indian philosophy does not discriminate between the working and non-working classes. It calls upon every individual to develop himself into an integral man by following the fourfold “Purushartha”. That is why we say that our traditional life-values and culture have the inherent power of addressing the whole humanity without any discrimination. To acquire this capacity within ourselves, to equip each one of us for this noble task, for the welfare of the world – so that we become better instruments to carry out the Divine Purpose of establishing a well-ordered, well-knit and integrated society, where men will be truthful and self-confident and worthy followers of the fourfold “Purushartha”, is the prime need of the hour.

The world will not follow our ideas, however great, by our merely proclaiming them. It will be of no avail to explain our noble principles to a world which has become totally indifferent to the gentle qualities of humanity, because of its being power-drunk and overwhelmed by affluence and pleasure-seeking; we may have to use the sanctions of force also in our endeavour to persuade them to follow the truth, so that the animal instincts in them could be curbed. Today we see the preponderance of animal instincts in men. Man is no more than a domesticated animal. Only one who has the inward and outward capacity, one who has realized himself, had acquired mastery over his senses, is virtuous, can influence others, can attract them on account of his inner Soul-power and guide them. We must create individuals endowed with such qualities; this ultimate objective in our view, we should organize the society and make it strong and powerful in such a way that it will be happy but not pleasure-seeking, will be prosperous but not directionless.

Prompted by the this kind of high ideology, let us discourage people pursuing demoniac ways in their eagerness to ape the west, inspiring them at the same time to develop their divine nature. Only then they will be competent to show the path of wisdom to our country, society and the humanity. He, who makes it a life mission to devote to this task according to his ability and capacity, is a servant of humanity, a great benefactor of his country. It will be an ideal thing if we engage ourselves in such an endeavour. This propounder of the concept of Integral Humanism Pt. Deendayal Upadhyaya was a great thinker and philosopher. He clearly showed us what an Integral Man is. Creation of such an Integral Man was his mission.

(Based on a speech of Sri Guruji at the Deendayal Upadhaya Sanatana Dharma Vidyalaya, Kanpur on 22nd Dec., 1972).

Courtesy: Deendayal Upadhyaya’s Integral Humanism: documents, interpretations, comparisons, New  Delhi: Deendayal Research Institute, 1992, M.S.Golwalkar “Integral Man: Bharatiya Concept, pg:63-69, Edited by Sri Devendra Swarup.