Tag Archives: Razakar

The Liberation of Hyderabad State from the Nizam

While the rest of Bharat was celebrating Independence on 15th of August, 1947, Hyderabad state ( current Telangana, parts of Maharashtra & Karnataka ) under the Nizam was witnessing a different scenario: those who tried to celebrate were being caned, fired upon and arrested by Nizam’s Police. Razakaars (private militia of Nizam) were attacking the people and the Indian National Flag was being torn apart. It was amply evident that the rulers of the erstwhile Hyderabad state and their cohorts, were not inclined to celebrate Indian Freedom. The reason is not difficult to fathom: Nizam and his ilk neither considered themselves Bharatiyas nor wanted to be so.

In his book Pilgrimage to Freedom, Dr. KM Munshi, India’s Agent General in Hyderabad before the Police Action in Hyderabad, had written that the Nizam of Hyderabad had set his heart on becoming a third Dominion of the British Commonwealth. When Nizam saw that Clause 7 of the Indian Independence Bill did not permit the grant of Dominion Status to an Indian State, he had lamented against the “way in which my state is being abandoned by its old ally, the British Government, and the ties which have bound me in loyal devotion to the King Emperor are being severed.”

Some of the ‘hallmarks’ of Nizam’s regime were suppression of Bharatiya Culture and followers of Sanatana Dharma, victimization of Indian Nationalists, banning symbols of Indian civilization, forced conversions, promotion of Urdu at the cost of local languages like Telugu, Kannada and Marathi and above all, elimination of vocal voices against the Islamist tyranny through rape and day light assassinations.
 
In addition to the Islamist zealots Razakaars, the Communists were also a menace. In his book The Story of Integration of Indian States, author VP Menon writes the following regarding the Communists in the erstwhile state:
“…people went to the extent of saying that the Razakars ruled by day, while the Communists ruled by night…subsequently the Communists allied themselves with the Razakars who, for a time, had become the virtual masters of Hyderabad…the Razakars and the Communists were truly an ill-assorted pair, for whereas the former wanted to establish a Muslim oligarchy in the State, the latter’s purpose was to exploit the turmoil and confusion so that they could take possession of the State and ultimately spread their tentacles to the rest of India”
 
All efforts of GoI bore no fruit and Hyderabad State continued to dodge efforts aimed to bring it into the Indian Union. Nizam’s government started divesting itself of its Indian securities, banning the Indian currency, halting the export of precious metals and ground nuts, organising illegal gun-running from Pakistan, and inviting new recruits to its army and to its private Militia – the Razakaars.
 
These developments alarmed the then Home Minister Sardar Patel who had famously described an independent Hyderabad as “an ulcer in the heart of India which needed to be removed surgically.”
These events culminated in Sardar Patel instructing and authorizing Indian Army to execute Operation Polo – the code name for a brief 5-day Police Action which liberated Hyderabad from the clutches of Nizam. It commenced on 13th of September 1948 and ended swiftly on 17th of September, 1948 with the surrender of Nizam and the liberation of the erstwhile Hyderabad State. #HyderabadLiberationDay
Anant Seth

Genocidal Bloodbath at Bhairavunapalli ( Bairanpally ) in Telangana

  • By Abhishek R
  • Nizam Private army , Razakar units being trained by Muslim volunteers

  • The episode is of 1948 in erstwhile Hyderabad State , now Telangana

The houses were set on fire, men murdered, women dishonoured, children and the elderly killed in a cowardly manner. The whole village of Lingapur was brought to nought  just because the Villagers failed to pay Razakars the booty they demanded.  When the ghastly news spread to the nearby village of Bhairavunipalli 30-40 men armed with sticks rushed towards Lingapur only to find Jubilant Razakars with carts full of looted wealth and grains on their way back. Enraged at this sight they started to chase the Razarkars who rained bullets on them. Unmindful of this the villagers continued their hot pursuit and in no time the Razakars fled leaving behind the carts full of plunder and the guns they were carrying.

Few days after this incident, Razakars in a larger entrouge came to Bhairavunipalli and demanded a levy of 1200/- along with the carts of plunder, the village elders bluntly refused to budge to the demands. The Razakars filed a complaint with the Police Amin of the area against the disloyalty of the villagers against the State. Observing the tide of events, it was unanimously decided that a well planned defence was needed to safeguard the village to avoid the repeat of Lingapur. Accordingly a Watch was posted at the manor of the Tower of Bhairavunipalli and men carrying muzzle-loaders were constantly guarding the tower. Any danger to the village meant the sounding of kettledrum and all the Villagers would drop the work at hand and take up  positions to fight with whatever they had – Stick, sickle, axe or even a stone.

Villagers from eight nearby villages were assigned the job of arranging 50-100 men, one village daily armed with sticks and stones to go around the village and upkeep their morale. Accordingly weapons and explosives were always kept ready in case of any crisis. Wireless service was carried out by Simple unassuming shepherds and  a Brahmin Vishwanath Bhatt Joshi racing on his bicycle.

This defence of the villagers and their stiff resistance to any signs of advancing Razarkars even around the hamlets made the Village of Bhairavunipalli an excrescence for the Establishment. Eqbal Hasham, Deputy Collector of Bhongir grew impatient with each passing day at the  hostility and self respect of the villagers. Therefore this gentleman with an ‘armed’ battalion set out to establish ‘peace’ in the village. No sooner did he even reach the borders of the village, the kettledrum was sounded, villagers took assigned positions and a hail of bullets were showered upon Eqbal Hasham and his battalion of Razakars . The face-off continued for about 8 hours where only 4 villagers were martyred but more than 15 Razakars fell dead. Enraged at this defeat the gentleman Eqbal Hasham promised revenge and vowed to return to teach them a fitting lesson.

In those days Jangaon was the Taluk headquarters.  A Cantonment of Nizami soldiers was always housed there. Officers of the rank of DIG, DSP from the police force, one Major and two capitans from the Army were personally engaged in preparation and planning for an attack that was unprecedented both in terms of scale and preparation. Artillery, gun powder and material was being loaded onto the trucks on war footing and late by night the jeeps started their march towards the Warangal-Siddipet road. The convoy included 500 soldiers from the Nizami army, police force and the Razakars along with 200 civilian officers.

It was an evening as usual in the village of Bhairavunipalli. People returning home after a long day of work in the fields, herdsman  driving back their animals were a common sight. No one had any inkling towards the impeding catastrophe.

It was still quite early in the Morning around 4-4:30  when Vishwanath Bhatt Joshi woke up to attend the call of nature. In the early morning darkness much to his shock he was seized by the soldiers of Nizami army. By that time the forces had surrounded the village of Bhairavunipalli in half a mile radius .There was a talk of shooting him but M.N Reddy who was also one of the Civilian officer argued that he was a Brahmin – a man of Non violence and hence deserved to be let off. The soldiers grew suspicious if Reddy was using Joshi to alert the villagers, they strictly warned him and let go. Little did they know that he was the wirelesss service between the villages surrounding Bhairavunipalli. Almost at the same time a young carpenter Venkata Narasayya was apprehended but a well built man that he was, he pushed them and ran hard alerting the villagers about the impending attack.

Standing on the Gallows as the great Revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil said..

  I have neither the earlier ambitions
Nor a crowd of desires in me
The only desire left in Bismil’s heart
Is one to Die!

In no time the Kettle drum was sounded, war cries reverberated throughout the village, villagers ran to take positions, the womenfolk safeguarded the children and the elderly , the Small canon in the village started booming and it was War on!

The valiant attitude of the villagers at the time of the dastardly attack early in the morning, the phsycological  and mental toughness that they showed is bound to make our hair stand on its end.

The villagers with their traditional weapons couldn’t hold the ground for too long courtesy to ruthless shelling and firing of the Nizami forces. Two boys Ramayya Koli and Bhumayya Banjara who climbed on tower to ascertain the strength of the Razarkars were shot dead. Understanding the gravity of the situation the villagers hoisted a white flag signalling truce, but the barbaric forces were in no mood to relent. They entered the village and started a bloodbath unparalleled in the chronicles of history. Men and young boys were blindfolded and tied together with ropes and dragged out of the village like animals, women was raped en mass. Young, old, frail or diseased no one was left alive.

But the thirst of the barbarians were not yet satisfied. Men and young boys who were blindfolded and tied were brought and an experiment was planned. The officers of the Nizami Army were relaxing and discussing about how many bodies would a .303 bullet pass through if they were made to stand in a single row. To lay to rest these doubts a young officer came forward and fired a bullet instantly passing through four people killing them in an instance. Not satisfied with this, a Civilian officer, Gentleman Eqbal Hasham, Deputy collector of Bhongir came forward and took aim. The bullet he fired passed through 10 men, all falling dead. The nefarious, savage and brutal games continued until about 150 men were killed. 90 Harijans were killed and buried in a mass grave.

The outrageous fact was that the Bloodbath of Bhairavunipalli ( August 27th 1948 ) happened when the entire country was celebrating the First Independence Day. Such travesty of justice!

The Village looted, farmlands destroyed, rivulets of blood flowed, harrowing cries echoed along with the chirping of early morning birds, thick smoke bellowing from the houses on fire  covered the early morning sun. The scene was beyond comprehension for a sane human mind. The annihilation was complete.

The  great Revolutionary Ram Prasad Bismil famously wrote:
O Youngmen! If it ever pricks your hearts..
Remember us once in a while..
Us, the ones who lost their limbs one after the other
Whose mothers have lost all hopes
But not a shadow of pain on their foreheads
We don’t care what happens to us!
But Mother India’s suffering crossed our minds everyday every moment…

O Youngmen! If it ever pricks your hearts..
Remember us once in a while!
Remember us once in a while!!

Communists colluded with Nizam’s Razakars – KM Munshi Memoirs

Source : K.M.Munshi’s ” The End of an Era”

నిజాం రజాకార్ల తో చేతులు కలిపిన కమ్యూనిస్టులు
మే 1948, భారత ఏజెంట్ జనరల్ కే ఎం మున్షి గారు రచించిన “ ఎండ్ అఫ్ ఏరా” అనే పుస్తకం లోనిది

కమ్యూనిస్ట్ పార్టీ అఫ్ హైదరాబాద్ గతంలో తీసుకున్న నిర్ణయం నుంచి పూర్తిగా విరుద్ధమైన ప్రకటనతో ఒక కొత్త పాంఫ్లెట్ ముంద్రించడం జరిగింది. అందులో, హైదరాబాద్ సంస్థానం భారత దేశంలో వీలీనం కావడాన్ని వ్యతిరేకిస్తూ భారతీయ ప్రభుత్వం ఒక పెట్టుబడిదారి ప్రభుత్వం అని ఆరోపించింది.
కమ్యూనిస్టులు తాము నిలకడగా ఉన్నాము అని చెప్పుకోవడానికి, నిజమైన స్వాతంత్రం రావాలి అంటే భూస్వామ్య వ్యవస్థ సంపూర్ణంగా నిర్మూలించబడాలి అని నినాదం ముందుకు తెచ్చారు.

కొన్ని నివేదికల ప్రకారం, నిజాం ప్రభుత్వానికి కమ్యూనిస్ట్ లకు మద్య ఒక అవగాహన మాత్రమే కాకుండా పశ్చిమ బెంగాల్ లోని కమ్యూనిస్ట్ లు ద్వార ఇక్కడి రజాకార్లకు మారణాయుధాలు అందించబడుతున్నాయి.

కమ్యూనిస్ట్ ల నూతన ప్రచారం ప్రకారం దేశంలోని వివిధ సంస్థానాలు, భారత్ యూనియన్ వీలేనం కావడం అనే ప్రక్రియనే పూర్తిగా ప్రజాస్వామ్య వ్యతిరేకమైనది అని, ప్రజల మనస్సులో ఉన్న తిరుగుబాటును అనగదోక్కడమే అన్నారు.
భారతీయ సైన్యాలు ఒకవేళ హైదరాబాద్ సంస్థానంలోకి ప్రవేశిస్తే, అవి ప్రజల ఉద్యమాన్ని అనిచివేయడానికె అని ప్రకటించారు. కమ్యూనిస్ట్ ల ప్రాభల్యం లేదా భయం ద్వార తమ గుప్పిట్లో ఉన్న గ్రామాలలో ఒకవేళ భారత సైన్యాల కదలికలను కనిపిస్తే వాటిని వ్యతిరేకించాలి అని తమ కార్యకర్తలు, సానుభూతి పరులను ప్రోత్సహించారు ; #HydLiberationDay #HyderabadLiberationDay