Author Archives: Svādhyaāya

Integral Humanism – Lectures of Deendayal Upadhyaya – 2

Lecture #1:

22nd April 1965

C H A P T E R- 2

Yesterday we had seen that even after 17 years of independence, we have still to decide what direction we should adopt to realize our cherished dream of all round development in the lives of our countrymen. Normally people are not prepared to seriously consider this question. They think only of the problems which they face from time to time. Sometimes economic problems are viewed with concern and an attempt is made to resolve them, and at other times social or political problems come to the forefront claiming attention. Not knowing fundamentally the direction in which we to go, all these efforts are not accompanied by sufficient enthusiasm nor do they give a feeling of satisfaction to the people engaged in these efforts. These efforts produce only a fraction of the results which they ought to have produced.

Modern versus Ancient

Those who advocates some define direction, include two distinct groups of people. There are some who suggest that we must go back to the position when we lost our independence and proceed from there. On the other hand there are people who would like to discard all that has originated here in Bharat and are not ready to think about it. They seem to think that western life and thoughts are the last word in progress and all of it should be imported here if we are to develop. Both these lines of thought are incorrect, thought they do represent partials truths and it will not be proper to discard them altogether.

Those who advocate starting from where we left off a thousand years ago, forget that whether it may or may not be desirable. It is definitely impossible. The flow of time cannot be reversed.

 The Past Cannot be Disowned

In the past one thousand years whatever we assimilated whether it was forced on us or we took with willingness cannot be discarded now. Besides, we too have created originality not a little. In the life of our society, we did not remain always mere passive witness to whatever new challenging situations arose; nor did we merely react to every alien action. We too have attempted to reshape our life as required to face the new situations. Therefore, it will not do, simply to close our eyes to all that has happened in the past one thousand years.

Foreign Ideologies Are Not Universal

Similarly those who would like to make western ideologies the basis of our progress forget that these ideologies have arisen in certain special situations and time. These are not necessarily universal. They cannot be free from the limitations of the particular people and their culture, which gave birth to these Isms. Besides this, many of these ideas are already out of date. The principles of Marx have changed both with the changing times as well as with varying conditions to the extent that parrot like repetition of Marxism for problems facing our country would amount to a reactionary attitude rather than a scientific and pragmatic one. It is indeed surprising that those who claim to reform the society by removing dead traditions, themselves fall prey to some outdated foreign traditions.

Our country: Our problems

Every country has its own peculiar historical, social and economic situations and its leaders decide the remedies to the ills that beset the country from time to time taking into consideration its background. It is illogical to believe that remedies which the leaders of one country decided to try for their problems are likely to be applicable as such to all other peoples. A simple illustration will suffice. Even though the basic organic activity is the same in all human beings the drugs which may be helpful in England may not prove equally helpful in India. Diseases depend also upon climate, water, dietary habits and heredity. Even though the external symptoms may be apparently similar the same drug does not necessarily cure all persons. Those who apply a single panacea to all diseases must be considered quacks rather than doctors. Therefore Ayurveda states i.e. for the disease in each place remedy suitable to that place must be found. Therefore, it is neither possible nor wise to adopt foreign Isms in our country in the original from in toto. It will not be helpful in achieving happiness and prosperity.

Human Knowledge Is Common Property

On the other hand it needs, to be realized that not all the thoughts and principles that have sprung up elsewhere are necessarily local in space and time. The response of human beings in a particular place time and social atmosphere may, and does, in many cases have relation and use to other human beings elsewhere and at other times. Therefore to ignore altogether the developments in other societies, past or present is certainly unwise. Whatever truths these developments contain must be taken not of and accepted. The rest must be scrupulously avoided. While absorbing the wisdom of other societies it is only proper that we avoid their mistakes or perversities. Even their wisdom should be adapted to our particular circumstances. In brief, we must absorb the knowledge and gains of the entire humanity so far as eternal principles and truths are concerned. Of these the ones that originated in our midst have to be clarified and adapted to changed times and those that we take from other societies have to be adapted to our conditions.

The Conflicting Ideas

The western political thought has accepted Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism or equality as ideals. Besides now and then, there have been attempts directed at world unity which took the shape of the “League of Nations” and after the Second World War, the “United Nation Organizations”. For a variety of reasons those have not succeeded. However, those definitely were attempts in that direction.

All these ideals have in practice proved to be incomplete and mutually opposing. Nationalism led to conflict between nations and in turn to global conflict, whereas if status-quo is regarded as synonymous with world peace the aspirations of many small nations to be independent would have never been fulfilled. World unity and Nationalism conflict with each other. Some advocate suppression of Nationalism for world unity whereas other regard world unity as an utopian ideal and emphasize national interest to the utmost.

Similar difficulty arises in reconciling Socialism and Democracy. Democracy grants individual liberty but the same is used by capitalist system for exploitation and monopoly. Socialism was brought in to end exploitation but it eliminated the freedom and dignity of the individual. Mankind stands confused unable to decide what is the correct path for future progress. The West is not in a position to say with confidence that “this alone and no other” is the right path. It is itself groping. Therefore simply to follow the West would be an instance of a blind being led by another blind.

In this situation our attention is claimed by the Bharatiya culture. Is possible that our culture can point the direction to the world? From the national stand point we shall have to consider our culture because that is our very nature. Independence is intimately related to one’s own culture. If culture does not form the basis of independence then the political movement for independence would reduce simply to a scramble by selfish and power seeking persons independence can be meaningful only if it becomes instrument for the expression of our culture. Such expression will not only contribute to our progress but the effort required will also give us the experience of joy. Therefore, both from the national as well as human standpoint it has become essential that we think of the principles of the Bharatiya culture. If with its help we can reconcile the various ideals of the western political though then it will be an added advantages for us. These western principles are a product of revolution in human thought, and social conflict. They represent one or the other aspiration of mankind. It is not proper to ignore them.

Bharatiya Culture Is Integrated

The first characteristic of Bharatiya culture is that it looks upon life as an integrated whole. It has an integrated view point. To think of parts may be proper for a specialist but it is not useful from the practical standpoint. The confusion in the West arises primarily from its tendency to think of life in sections and then to attempt to put them together by patch work. We do admit that there is diversity and plurality in life but we have always attempted to discover the unity behind them. This attempt is thoroughly scientific. The scientists always attempt to discover order in the apparent disorder in the universe, to find out the principles governing the universe and frame practical rules on the basis of these principles. Chemists discovered that a few elements comprise the entire physical world. Physicists went one step further and showed that even these elements consist only of energy. Today we know that the entire universe is only a form of energy. Philosophers are also basically scientists. The western philosophers reached tip to the principle of duality; Hegel put forward the principle of thesis, anti-thesis and synthesis; Karl Marx used this principle as a basis and presented his analysis of history and economics. Darwin considered the principle of survival of the fittest as the sole basis of life. But we in this country saw the basic unity of all life. Even the dualists have believed the nature and spirit to be complementary to each other than conflicting. The diversity in life is merely an expression of the internal unity. There is complementary underlying the diversity. The unit of seed finds expression in various form – – the roots, the trunk, the branches the leaves, the flowers and the fruits of the tree. All these have different forms and colors and even to some extent different properties. Still we recognize their relation of unity with each other through seed.

Mutual Conflict – Sign of Cultural Regression

Unity in diversity and the expression of unity in various forms has remained the central thought of Bharatiya culture. If this truth is wholeheartedly accepted then there will not exist any cause for conflict among various powers. Conflict is not a sign of culture of nature: rather it is a symptom of their degradation. The law of the jungle, “Survival of the Fittest” which the West discovered in recent years was known to our philosophers.

We have recognized desire, anger etc. among the six lower tendencies of human nature, but we did not use them as the foundation or the basis of civilized life or culture. There are thieves and robbers in the society. It is essential to save ourselves and the society from these elements. We cannot consider them as our ideals or standards for human behavior. Survival of the fittest is the law of the jungle. The civilizations have developed not on the basis of this law but by consideration of how the operation of this law will be the least in human life. If we wish to progress, we have to keep this history of civilization before our minds.

Mutual Co-operation

Co-operation also obtains in abundance just as conflict and competition in this world. Vegetation and animal life keep each other alive. We get our oxygen supply with the help of vegetation whereas we provide Carbon Dioxide (CO2) so essential for the growth of vegetable life. This mutual co-operation sustains life on this earth. The recognition of this element of mutual sustenance among different forms of life and taking that as the basis of an effort to make human life mutually sustaining is the prime characteristic of civilization. To mold the nature to achieve the social goals is culture but when this nature leads to social conflict it is perversion. Culture does not disregard or deny nature. Rather it enhances those elements in nature which are helpful in sustaining life in this universe and making it fuller richer, and curbs others which obstruct or destroy life. Let us take a simple illustration. The relationship such as brother, sister, mother and son, father and son are natural. These are same both in man as well as among animals. Just as two brothers are sons of one mother, so also two calves have a single mother-cow. Where lies the difference?? In animals by lack of memory the relation is short-lived. They cannot build up an edifice of civilization on these relations. But men use this natural relation as a basis to construct a more harmonious order in life, to establish other relationships flowing from these basic relationships so as to knit the whole society in single unit of co-operation. Thus various values and traditions are built. Standards of good and bad are constructed accordingly. In society we find instances of both affection as well as enmity between brothers. But we consider affection good and aim at enchanting affectionate brotherly relations. The opposite tendency is disapproved.

If conflict and enmity is made the basis of human relationships and if on this basis history is analyzed, then it would be futile to dream of world peace to result out of such a course of action.

A mother brings up her children. Mother’s love is held up as the highest love. On such a basis alone we can devise the rules regulating the life of mankind. Sometimes there are examples of selfishness and cruelty of a mother toward her child. Among some species of animals’ mother devise her progeny to satisfy the hunger. On the other hand among monkeys mother carries her child long after its death. Both types of behavior are found among living things. Which of these two principles of nature can be made the basis of civilized life? We cannot but conclude that alone which helps to sustain life can be chosen, the contrary cannot lead to civilized life. Human nature has tendencies, anger, and greed on the one hand and love, sacrifice on the other. All these are present in our nature. Anger etc. are natural to man and beasts. For the reason if we make anger a standard in our life and arrange our efforts accordingly then the result will be a lack of harmony in our life. Therefore the exhortation, “do not yield to anger” even when the anger arises in one’s mind one can exercise control over it and one should do so. Thus control becomes a standard of our life and not anger.

Such laws are known as the principles of ethics. These principles are not framed by anyone. They are discovered. A suitable analogy is that of the law of gravitation, that if we throw a stone it falls on the ground. This law of gravitation is not framed by Newton. He discovered it. When he saw an apple falling to the ground from the branch, he realized there must exist such a law. Thus he discovered this law, he did not frame it. Similarly there are certain principles of human relations such as, if one feels anger it is on the whole beneficial to mankind that one must control anger. These principles of ethics are then discovered.

“Do not tell lies to one another; say what you know to be true”. This is a principle. Its usefulness becomes apparent at every step in life. We appreciates truthful person. If we speak lie, we ourselves feels unhappy; life cannot go on; there will be great confusion.

Modern versus Ancient

These Principles Constitute Our Dharma

A child does not speak lie by nature. Often Parents, teach their child to speak untruths. When the child desires something, if parents do not wish that child should have it, they conceal the object and tell the child that the desired object has disappeared. The child may be fooled a couple of times but soon knows the real situation and learns to speak untruth. This fact that by nature a person is truthful is a law that is discovered. Many other principles of ethics are similarly discovered. They are not arbitrarily framed by someone. In Bharat these principles are termed “Dharma”, laws of life. All those principles which bring about harmony, peace and progress in the life of mankind are included in this “Dharma”. On the sound basis of “Dharma” then, we must proceed with the analysis of life as an integral whole.

When Nature is channeled according to the principles of Dharma, we have culture and civilization. It is indeed this culture which will enable us to sustain and sublimate the life of mankind. “Dharma” is translated here as law. The English word ‘religion’ is not the correct word for ‘Dharma’.

As pointed out earlier an integrated life is the foundation and the principle underlying this culture as well as its aims and ideals. We have thought of life as Integrated not only in the case of collective or social life but also in the individual life. Normally an individual is thought of in the physical bodily forms. Physical comfort and luxury is considered happiness. But we know that mental worry destroys bodily happiness. Everyone desires physical comfort. But if a person is imprisoned and there he is given finest of food etc., will he be happy? A person does not experience joy on getting nice food if it is also accompanied by a few abuses. There is a well-known incident in Mahabharata. When Lord Krishna went to Hastinapur as an emissary of Pandavas, Duryodhan invited him to enjoy his hospitality. Lord Krishna declined his Invitation and went instead to Vidura’s home. Overjoyed by the visit of this much revered guest, Vidura’s wife served the banana skins while throwing away the pulp. But Lord Krishna enjoyed even the meal of banana skin. That is why it is said, “Even a modest meal served with dignity and affection tastes better than the best delicacies served with disrespect”. It is necessary therefore to take not of the mental happiness.

Similarly there is an intellectual happiness which too must be considered even after a person gets comforts for the body, and importance, affection, etc. which please the mind. If he is involved in some intellectual confusion he is reduced to a state almost similar to madness. And what is madness itself? A lunatic may have all physical comforts, he may be perfectly healthy and properly cared for by his relatives; but he does not possess intellectual happiness. Intellectual peace is also essential and important. We will have to take all these things into consideration.

Modern versus Ancient

The Political Aspirations of Man

Body, mind, intelligence and the soul.-these four make up an individual. But these are integrated. We cannot think of each part separately. The confusion that has arisen in the West is due to the fact that they have treated each of the above aspects of human being separately and without any relation to the rest. When there was movement for democratic structure, they proclaimed “man is a political animal” and therefore his political aspirations must be attended to. Why only one person should be the king and others his subjects’? Let everyone rule! In Order to satisfy this political man they gave him the right to vote. Now he did get the right to a vote, but at the same time other rights diminished. Then the questions arose. “The voting right is nice but what about food?  What if there is nothing to eat?” They wondered, “Now that you have voting right, you are the king. Why need you worry?” But man replied, “What shall I do with the state if I do not get any food? I have no use of this voting right. I want bread first. Then came Karl Marx and said, “Yes, bread is the most important thing. The state belongs to the ‘haves’. So let us fight for bread. He saw man as primarily made up of body, wanting bread. But those who followed the path shown by Karl Marx came to realize that they had neither bread, nor voting-right.

At the opposite end there is USA. There is both bread as well as voting right. Even so there is lack of peace and happiness. USA has highest list in number of suicides, number of mental patients and number of persons using tranquilizers to get sleep. People are puzzled as to the cause of this new situation. Man obtained bread, he got his voting right, and still there is no peace, no happiness. Now they want back their peaceful sleep. Sound and undisturbed sleep is a scarce commodity in the present day America. Those who think realize that there is a basic mistake somewhere, whereby even after acquiring all good things of life, they are not happy. The reason is that they have not thought of the integrated human being. In our country we have thoroughly considered this matter. That is why we have stated that progress of man means progress of the body, mind, intellect and soul of man, all together. Often it has been propagated that Bharatiya culture thinks only salvation of the soul. It does not bother about the rest. This is wrong. We do not think of the soul but it is not true that we do not consider body, mind and intellect of much importance. Other gave importance of body alone. Therefore our attention to the soul is unique. With time this created and impression that we are concerned only with the soul and not with other aspects of human being. A young unmarried boy cares for his mother, but after marriage he cares both for his wife as well as his mother, and discharges his responsibilities towards both of them. Now if anyone says that this man has no loves for his mother, it would be untrue. A wife also loves only her husband at first, but after the birth of child, she loves both her husband and child. Sometimes an unthoughtful husband feels that his wife neglects him, after the birth of their child. But this is generally not correct. If that is true then the wife has certainly slipped in her duty. Similarly, while we recognize the need to pay attention to the soul, we do not neglect the body. Upanishads declare in unambiguous words i.e. weakling cannot realize the self. Again Body is truly the primary instrument to discharge the responsibilities that dharma in joins. The fundamental difference between our position and that of the west is that, whereas they have regarded body and satisfaction of its desires as the aim, we regard the body as an instrument for achieving our aims. We have recognized the importance of the body only in this light. The satisfaction of our bodily needs is necessary, but we don’t consider this to be the sole aim of all our efforts. Here in Bharat, we have placed before ourselves the ideal of the four fold responsibilities, of catering for the needs of body, mind, intellect and soul with a view of achieve the integrated progress of man. Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha are the four kinds of human effort. Purushartha means efforts which befit a man. The longings for Dharma, Artha Kama and Moksha, are inborn in man, and satisfaction. Of these four efforts too, we have thought in an integrated way.

Even though Moksha has been considered the highest of these Purusharthas, efforts for Moksha alone are not considered to give benefit to the soul. On the other hand, a person who engages in action, while remaining unattached to its fruits, is said to achieve Moksha inevitably and earlier. Artha includes what is known as political and economic policies. According to the ancients, it used to include the justice and punishment also. Kama relates to the satisfaction of various natural desires. “Dharma” defines a set of rules to regulate the social activity Artha and Kama, so as to progress in an integral and harmonious way and attain not only Kama and Artha but also Moksha eventually. Thus even though Dharma regulates Artha and Kama, all the three are interrelated and mutually complementary. Dharma helps achieve Artha. Even in business, one requires honesty, restraint, truthfulness etc. which are the attributes of Dharma. Without these qualities one cannot earn money. It must be admitted that Dharma is instrumental in attaining Artha and Kama. Americans proclaimed, “Honesty is the best business policy”. In Europe they said, “Honesty is the best policy”. We go one step forward and assert “Honesty is not a policy but a principle” i.e. we believe in dharma not just because it is instrumental in acquiring Artha but because it is a fundamental principle of civilized life. Kama too can be attained only through Dharma. Having produced the material things such as nice food, when, where, how and in what measure it will be used can be determined only by Dharma. If a sick person eats food meant for a healthy one and vice versa, both of them will be at a disadvantage. Dharma helps in restraining the natural tendencies of man, whereby he is able to determine what is beneficial to him apart from what is pleasurable. Hence Dharma is given the foremost place in our culture. Dharma is of primary importance, but we should not forget that it is not possible to practice Dharma in the absence of Artha. There is a saying “What sin will not be committed by one who is starving? Those who have lost everything become ruthless.”

Even a rishi like Vishwamitra driven by hunger broke into the home of a hunter and ate the flesh of a dog. Therefore we are enjoined to see that there is enough wealth created continuously, since wealth also strengthens Dharma. Similarly the government has to maintain law and order and prevent chaos, which definitely destroys Dharma. At the time of Chaos, law of the jungle prevails where the strong feed upon the weak. Therefore stability in the state is also essential for the prevalence of Dharma. In order to do these, education, character building, spread of idealism, and suitable economic structures are all necessary. Governments also fall inside the realm of Artha. Excessive power of state is also harmful of Dharma. It was said that a king should be neither too harsh nor too soft with his people. Heavy reliance on harsh measures produces a feeling of revolt in people. When state usurps the rightful position of Dharma, then there is this evil of preponderance of power of the state. Dharma suffers thereby. This is the reason of the decline of Dharma in ruthless states.

When the state-acquires all powers, both political and economic, the result is a decline of Dharma. In this way if the state has unlimited powers, the whole society looks towards the state, for everything. Officers of the government neglect their duties and acquire vested interests. These are all signs of the preponderance of the powers of state, Dharma staffers a setback. Hence Artha should not be allowed to acquire in either of these two ways. Karma too has been considered on the same lines. I the physical needs are neglected, and desires entirely suppressed, Dharma does not grow. Dharma cannot be observed if one has no food to eat. If the fine arts which satisfy the mind are altogether stopped, then the civilizing influence on people will not be present. Mind will become perverse and Dharma neglected. On the other hand, if greediness of the gluttons of Rome or sensuousness of Yayati prevails, then the duties will be forgotten. Hence Kama too must be pursued consistent with Dharma. We have thus considered the life of an individual in a through and integrated manner. We have set the aim of developing body, mind intellect as well as soul in a balance way. We have tried to satisfy the manifold aspirations man taking care that efforts to satisfy two different aspirations are not mutually conflicting. This is the integrated picture of all the fourfold aspirations of and individual. This concept of a complete human being, integrate individual, is both our goal as well as our path. What should be the relation of this integrated human being with the society and how the interests of the society should be enhanced will be discussed tomorrow.


Lecture #1:

Lecture #3:

Lecture #4:

Integral Humanism – Lectures of Deendayal Upadhyaya – 1

Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya was born on Sept. 25, 1916, in a village Nagla Chandrabhan, Near Mathura in Uttar Pradesh. He passed his Matriculation standing first class, first in the Ajmer Board Examinations, winning two gold medals. He again won two gold medals in Intermediate examination securing first rank. He did his B.A. in mathematics in first class. Panditji joined the RSS in 1937 as one of the first few Swayamsevaks and rose to be its Joint Provincial Pracharak. He joined the Jana Sangh in 1952 and was appointed its General Secretary, which post he retained till he became the President of the Party in 1967. After the death of Dr.Syama Prasad Mookherji, Panditji shouldered the responsibility of building up the party and he achieved a remarkable success in this onerous task. Pandit Upadhyaya edited PANCHJANYA (Weekly) and SWADESH (Daily) from Lucknow. He has also written a drama CHANDRAGUPTA MAURYA in Hindi, and later wrote a Hindi biography of SHANKARACHARYA. He translated Marathi biography of Dr.Hedgewar, the founder of RSS. His death in tragic circumstances on Feb. 11, 1968 is an irreplaceable loss to the country.

Integral Humanism was first presented by Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya in the form of four lectures delivered in Mumbai on April 22-25, 1965.

Integral Humanism

C H A P T E R – 1

I am asked to present my thoughts on the subject of “Integral Humanism” in a series of talks beginning this evening. Last January at Vijayawada, Bharatiya Jana Sangh adopted the statement of “Principles & Policies” in which ‘Integral Humanism’ has also been accepted. There have been scattered discussions here and there on the subject. It is necessary that we consider Integral Humanism in all its aspects. So long as the country was under the yoke of the British rule, all the movements and policies in the country had one principal ‘aim to drive out the foreign rulers and to achieve independence’. But what would be the face of the new Bharat after independence? In which direction were we to advance? These questions were precisely thought out. It would not be correct to say that no thought was devoted to these aspects. There were people who even at that time had considered these questions. Gandhiji himself had set out his idea of the independent Bharat in his book “Hind Swaraj”. Prior to this Lokmanya Tilak discussed the philosophical basis of the rejuvenation of Bharat in his book ‘Gita Rahasya’. He gave a comparative discussion of various schools of thought current all over the world at that time.

Apart from these, the Congress and other political parties adopted various resolutions from time to time which contain references to this subject. However the subject requires much more serious study than was devoted to it at that time. It did not attract serious attention at that time because everyone believed it was more important to think of ways to drive out the British and the other things could be discussed later on. It did not seem right to waste time in internal discussions while the foreign rule continued. Hence even if there might have been difference in views, they were shelved for the time being. As a result, even those who held the view that socialism should be the basis of the future Bharat, worked inside the Congress as a socialist group. They did attempt to form as a separate party as such. The revolutionaries too, were working independence in their own way. All were agreed, however, that the foremost task was to gain independence. Having attained Independence, the question naturally ought to have occurred to us, “Now that we independent, what shall be the direction of our progress?” But is amazing that serious thought has not been to this question and today even after seventeen years independence we cannot say that a definite direction been decided upon.

 Whither Bharat

From time to time, Congressmen or others have declared Welfare State, Socialism, and Liberalism etc. as their aims. Slogans have been raised. But these ideology slogans attached little significance to the philosophies, apart from the slogans. I am saying this on the basis of personal discussions. A leading gentleman once suggested during a conversation that a joint front should be for against Congress, whereby a good fight can be given. Nowadays, political parties adopt this strategy. So, it was surprising to put forward this suggestion. However, naturally, I asked, “What programme shall we adopt? If such a joint front is formed some idea of the programme is essential. What will be our economic policy? What will our foreign policy? These questions should also be broadly tackled.”

“Do not worry about it. Whatever you like you can adopt. We are ready to support, anything from extreme Marxist to downright capitalist program.” The reply came as if this was natural. He had no difficulty in adopting any programme. The only object was somehow Congress should be defeated. Even now some declare that Congress must be defeated even with the cooperation of communists and all the rest. Recently elections were held in Kerala. During the elections, Communists, Muslim League, Swatantra Party, S.S.P. Rebel Congress known as Kerala Congress, Revolutionary Socialist Party etc. entered into a variety of bilateral of multiple alliances.

As a result, it was difficult to imagine that any of these parties had a definite ideology, principles and aims. This is the situation as far as principles are concerned. Congress too, is in a similar state. Even though the Congress has proclaimed democratic socialism as its goal, the behavior of various Congress leaders shows one thing clearly that there are no definite, principles, no single direction in Congress. There are staunch communists in Congress fold. There are also those who have faith in, Capitalism and oppose communism to the teeth. All brands of people are arrayed on Congress platform. If there can be a magic box which contains a cobra and a mongoose living together, it is Congress. We must ponder whether we can progress under such conditions. If we stop to analyze the reasons for the problems facing the country we will find that the confusion about our goal and the direction is mainly responsible for the chaos. I realize that all the 450 million people of Bharat cannot agree on all or even on a single question. That is not possible in any country. Yet there is generally, what is called a more or less common desire of the people of any nation. If this popular longing is made the basis of our aims, the common man feels that the nation is moving in a proper direction, and that his own aspiration is reflected in the efforts of the nation. This also generates the greatest possible feeling of unity. The truth of the statement is borne out by the response of the people during the Chinese Invasion of October/November 1962. A wave of enthusiasm swept across the country.  Action and sacrifice both obtained in abundance. There was no barrier between the government and the public or between various political parties. How did this happen? The external threat made us recognize ourselves. The government adopted that policy which reflected the widespread feeling in the people and which enhanced their sense of self-respect with a call for sacrifice. The result was, we stood united.

The Root of Our Problems-Neglect of Self

It is essential that we think about our national identity. Without this identity there is no meaning of independence, nor can independence become the instrument of progress and happiness. As long as we are unaware of our national identity, we cannot recognize develop all our potentialities. Under alien rule this identity is suppressed. That is why nations wish to remain independent so that they can progress according to their natural bent and can experience happiness in their endeavor. Nature is powerful. An attempt to go against nature or to disregard her leads to troubles. The natural instincts cannot be disregarded but it is possible to elevate this nature to the level of culture.

Psychology informs us how by suppression of various natural instincts different mental disorders ensue. Such a person remains restless and dejected. His abilities slowly deteriorate and become perverted. The Nation too like the individual becomes a prey to numerous ills when its natural instincts are disregarded. The basic cause of the problems facing Bharat is the neglect of its national identity.

Opportunism Has Shaken the Confidence of People in Politics

A majority of those who lead the nation today as well as those who take active interest in the affairs of the country are not sufficiently aware of this root cause. Consequently opportunists with no principles reign in politics of our country. Parties and politicians have neither principles nor aims nor a standard code of conduct. A person feels nothing wrong in leaving one party and joining another. Even alliances and mergers of parties or their bifurcations are dictated not by agreement or by differences in principles by purely by gains in elections or in positions of power. In 1939 Shri Hafiz Mohammed Ibrahim was elected Muslim League ticket. Later when he joined Congress, in accordance with healthy principles of public conduct he resigned and sought reelection on Congress ticket and was once again elected. In 1948 when socialists left Congress and founded Socialist Party, all those who were members of legislature resigned and fought elections on socialist tickets. But thereafter this healthy tradition was forgotten. Now there is complete license in politics. As result, in public mind there is distrust for everyone. There is hardly any reason whose Integrity is beyond doubt in the public mind. This situation must be changed. Otherwise, unity and discipline cannot.

What Should Be Our Direction?

The nation is at crossroads. Some people suggest that we must start from where we have left off one thousand years ago, when foreign invaders disrupted our life. But nation is not an inanimate object like a cloth so that weaving can be taken. up after a gap in time. Besides it would not be rational to say that the thousand year old alien rule has interrupted the current of our national life so completely that from that time to this day we remained stationary and inactive. The nation has certainly put her genius to work, in the changing circumstances to meet the challenges thrown at her. We have struggled to continue our life forward and to wrest independence from the aliens. The current of our national life was not interrupted but has gone on ceaselessly. The task of turning the waters of Ganga back to some previous point would not be wise Ganga at Banaras may not be crystal clear as at Haridwar. But still it is the same holy Ganga. It has absorbed numerous rivulets with all their refuse. However, these have no separate existence but have become Ganga. The current Ganga must inevitably glow onwards. If this was all that happened, it would still not be a big problem. But there are other nations in the world. They have made phenomenal progress in the past one thousand years. Our entire attention was engaged in fighting for independence or staving off new hordes of invaders. We have not been able to contribute to the world progress. Now when we are free, is it not paramount that we fill this deficiency at the earliest and stand shoulder to shoulder with other advanced nations of the world?

Up to this point there is no room for difference of opinion. The difficulty arises when we fail to discern the reasons of the spectacular advance of the West, its effects, real and, apparent. This is further complicated by the fact that Britishers a representative of the West, ruled this country for a century and, during this period adopted such measures whereby in the minds of our people a contempt for things Bharatiya and respect for everything Western were subtly created. Along with the scientific advance, their way of life, manners and food habits etc. came to this country. Not only material sciences but also their social, economic and political doctrines became our standards. Today the educated in this country clearly display this effect. We shall have to decide whether this effect is good or bad for us. We had taken pride in resisting things British while they ruled us, but strangely enough, now that the Britishers have left, Westernisation has become synonymous with progress. It is true that a narrow sense of nationalism should not be allowed to obstruct the progress of the nation. However western science and the western way of life are two different things. Whereas western science is universal and must be absorbed by us if we wish to go forward, the same is not true about the western way of life and values. In fact thoughtless imitation of the West must be scrupulously discarded. There are those who consider economic and political doctrines of the West as epitome of progress and desire to transplant the same in our country. Therefore when we are trying to decide where wish to take our country and how, we must also take into consideration the basis of various economic and political doctrines of the west and their present position.

The Rise of European Nations

Among various Isms that affected the West, the principal ones are Nationalism, Democracy and Socialism. At the same time there have been some who cherish world unity and world peace and have made some efforts in that direction.

Among these, nationalism is the oldest and the strongest. After the fall of the Roman Empire and decline in the influence of the Catholic Church, the Europe witnessed rise of several nations. History of Europe in the past on thousand years is the history of the rise of and conflict among various nations. These nations extended their empires beyond the European continent and subjugate other independent countries.

Nationalism brought nation and state together resulting in nation states. At the same time the decline in the influence of the Roman Catholic Church gave rise either to national churches or to complete disappearance of religious influence on politics. Anyway the concept of secular state arose out of this situation.

Birth of Democracy In Europe

A revolutionary concept which made a deep impact on the political life of Europe is Democracy. In the beginning, every nation had a king as its head but there was gradual awakening in the minds of people against the autocracy of the royalty. The industrial revolution and the international trade resulted in the rise of a business community in all nations. Naturally there ensued a conflict between these new centres of power and the established kings and feudal lords. This conflict, adopted ‘democracy’ as its philosophical basis. The origin of democracy was sought in the Greek city republics. The common man was attracted by the lofty ideals of equality, fraternity and liberty of every citizen. France witnessed a bloody revolution. In England too, there were periodic movements. The idea of democracy gained foothold in the mind of common man. The royalty was either liquidated or their powers were drastically’ curbed and constitutional governments were established. Today democracy has been already accepted in Europe. Even those who have suppressed democracy do not denounce it. The dictators like Hitler, Mussolini and Stalin too paid lip service to democracy.

Individual Was Exploited

Every individual got a vote in the democratic setup. But real power stayed with those who had led the revolution. Industrial revolution had generated faith in the new methods of production. Instead of working in the freedom of home, workers had started working in the factories taking orders from the factory owners, The worker migrated from his home town to dwell in crowded cities. There was no provision of proper housing. There were hardly any rules in the factory to protect the worker. He was economically weak and not yet organized. He became a victim of exploitation, injustice and harassment. Those in whom political power was vested were members of the same group who exploited the workers. Hence there was no hope of redress from the state.

A number of persons led movements in protest against this injustice with the desire to improve the lot of workers. They called themselves socialists. Karl Marx was one of them. In an effort to lead the movement against t injustice, he studied the entire history and structure presented his analysis of the situation. He claimed to have given a scientific basis to his theories. All the subsequent socialists might not have agreed with Marx but they all considerably influenced by his ideas.

Dictatorship of The Proletariat

According to Marx analysis-dialectic materialism the root cause of exploitation lies in the private owners of the means of production. If these means are made the property of the society (for. the Marxist, the Society synonymous with the State) then there will be no further exploitation. But before this the state should be redeemed from the hands of the exploiters and ensured against their influence in future. Towards this end, dictatorship of proletariat must be established. In order that people tolerate this dictatorship, it was held as an ideal that when the exploiter class has been finally liquidated, and possibility of its resurgence exists, the state will be replaced by a classless, stateless society. Marx also attempted to show that capitalism contains seeds of own destruction and that socialism is inevitable.

In some countries of Europe there was social revolution. Even where, socialism was not accepted, politicians had to accept the rights of workers. “Welfare State” was accepted as an ideal. Nationalism, democracy, socialism or equality (equality is there at the root of socialism; equality is different from equability), these three doctrines have dominated European social political thinking. Every now and then apart from these ideals of world, peace and world unity also cropped up. All these are good ideas. They reflect the higher aspirations mankind. But by itself each of these doctrines is incomplete. Not only that, each stands opposed to the rest in practice. Nationalism poses a threat to world peace. Democracy and Capitalism join hands to give free reign exploitation. Socialism replaced Capitalism and brought with it democracy and individual freedom. Hence the West is present faced with the task of reconciling these good ideals. They have not succeeded to this day, in this task. They have tried combinations and permutations, by emphasis on one or the other ideal. England emphasized nationalism and democracy and developed her politico-social institutions along those lines, whereas France could not adopt the same. There, democracy resulted in political instability. The British Labor party wanted to reconcile socialism with democracy but people have raised doubts whether democracy will survive if socialism gains strength. Hence the labor party no longer supports socialism so strongly as the Marxist doctrines advocate. If socialism has been diluted considerably, Hitler and Mussolini adopted nationalist cum socialism and buried democracy. In the end socialism also became a tool for their nationalism which posed a great threat to world peace and unity. We may indeed seek some guidance from the western world but the fact is, it has no concrete suggestions to offer. It is itself at crossroads unable to decide what is good. Under such circumstances we cannot expect guidance from the West. On the contrary we must consider whether in this present state of the world, we can contribute something to resolve its dilemma. Having taken note of the progress of the world, can we add to the common store of Knowledge? As a member of the world community, we must discharge our responsibilities. If we possess something that may prove helpful to world progress we should not hesitate in imparting it to the world. In this era of adulteration, instead of adulterating ideas we must on the contrary scrutinize and improve upon them wherever possible before accepting them. Rather than being a burden on the world, we must attempt to resolve if possible the problems facing the world. We must also consider what contribution our tradition and civilization make to the world culture. We shall consider this tomorrow evening.


Lecture #2:

Lecture #3:

Lecture #4:

Bhārat’s Pride : Veer Nāri Kittur Rani Chennamma

Nāri Shakti” has always played a pivotal role in Bharatiya Itihas. There have been innumerable examples of women contributors since Vedic times, whether it is for Self protection, protecting the Rashtra (nation) or for upholding Dharma, all that speak of spiritual knowledge and wisdom as well as valour and courage. To recall those great spiritual as well as mighty valiant personalities, is to worship the female form of divinity as a symbol of “Shakti”.

लक्ष्मी अहल्या चन्नम्मा रुद्रमाम्बा सुविक्रमा |
निवेदिता शारदा च प्रणम्य मातृ देवताः ॥
(Lakshmi Ahalyaa Channammaa Rudramaambaa suvikramaa
Niveditaa Shaaradaa cha praNamya maatRu devataaH)

In “ekAtmata Stotra”, this “sloka” invokes the two brave women by the same name of “Chennamma”: one was the queen – Rani of Keladi (from Sagara, Karnataka) and the other being Rani of Kittur (Belagavi District of Katnataka). The Moghul tyrant Aurangazeb, after killing the elder son of Shivaji i.e, Sambhaji went in pursuit of his second son, Raja Ram. At this time of trouble, Chennamma, the Rani of Keladi by providing refuge (protection) to Raja Ram, indirectly protected the newly arisen kingdom of Shivaji and she with her power of army retaliated against the Mughals.

Chennamma, the Rani of Kittur, a province in Karnataka, picked up a fierce fight with the British forces in order to foil their desire to grab Kittur after the untimely death of her husband. The Britishers were forced to enter into a peace-treaty with Chennamma. Later the English captured Chennamma, by deception, and kept her as prisoner in the Bailhongal Fort.

Like the Rani of Jhansi, both these Ranis sacrificed their lives for the sake of Independence of India.

(Picture Courtesy:

Kittur Rani Chennamma (23 October 1778 – 21 February 1829) led armed rebellion against the British forces in the year 1824, when not many rulers were familiar with the evil designs of the British through their British East India Company.

Chennamma was born in Kakati, a small village (in today’s Belagavi district of Karnataka) in the year 1778 that is almost 56 years earlier than Rani Lakshmi Bai of Jhansi. From a very young age she received training in horse riding, sword fighting and archery. She was well known for her brave acts across her town. She was married to Mallasarja Desai, ruler of Kittur at the age of 15. Her married life seemed to be a sad tale after her husband died in 1816. With this marriage she had only one son, but fate seemed to play a tragic game in her life. Her son breathed his last in 1824, leaving the lonely soul to fight against the British rule. After his death, his son Shivalingarudra Sarja who had no children adopted a boy, Shivalingappa who was his relative. Shivalingrudra died prematurely and Chennamma ruled as the regent (a person appointed to administer a state because the ruler is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated). After the death of her son, she adopted another child, Shivalingappa, and made him heir to the throne. However, the British East India Company did not accept this under the “Doctrine of Lapse”, a policy of annexation devised by the British East India Company.

Queen Chennamma during the British rule

The “Doctrine of Lapse” was an annexation policy imposed on native states by the British, devised by Dalhousie, who was the Governor General for the East India Company in India between 1848 and 1856. Under this declaration, native rulers were not allowed to adopt a child if they had no children of their own. Their territory formed part of the British Empire automatically (would automatically be annexed if the ruler was either ‘manifestly incompetent or died without a male heir’). The state of Kittur came under the administration of Dharwad collectorate under The East India company’s collector and political agent, Mr. St. John Thackeray. Mr. Chaplin was the commissioner of the region. Both did not recognize the new ruler and the regent, and informed that Kittur had to accept the British regime. Thackeray wished to capture Kittur to expand the British Empire. He was a clever strategist and refused to recognise the adoption as legal according to the “Doctrine of Lapse” imposed on all the states by the British. He sent his people to oversee the affairs of the kingdom and wished to take over the entire kingdom and its treasury. Both the local people and Rani Chennamma opposed strongly British high handedness. Thackeray invaded Kittur. In the battle, hundreds of British soldiers along with Thackeray were killed by the Kitturu forces. Amatur Balappa, Chennamma’s lieutenant, was responsible for his death and the losses to the British forces. Two British officers, Sir Walter Elliot and Mr. Stevenson, were also taken as hostages. Rani Chennamma released them after a promise from the British that the war would end.

(Picture Courtesy: Essay on Doctrine of Lapse)

War against the British

The humiliation of defeat at the hands of a small ruler was too much for the British to swallow. The British cheated her and re-started the war. This time, the British officer Chaplin actually continued the war with more forces. They brought in bigger armies from Mysore and Sholapur and surrounded Kittur. Chennamma tried her best to avoid war; she negotiated with Chaplin and Governor of Bombay Presidency under whose regime Kittur fell. It had no effect. Chennamma was compelled to declare war.

Rani Chennamma fought the second battle fiercely with the aid of her lieutenant Sangoli Rayanna and Gurusiddappa. During this second round of war, the Sub-collector of Sholapur, Mr. Munrow, nephew of Sir Thomas Munro, was also killed. For 12 days, Chennamma and her soldiers relentlessly defended their fort, but yet again, Chennamma was made prey to deceit –as is the common trait, the traitors sneaked in and mixed mud and dung in the gunpowder in the canons. Two soldiers of her own army, Mallappa Shetty and Vankata Rao, betrayed Chennamma by mixing mud and cow dung with the gunpowder used for the canons. Ultimately, Kittur Chennamma and her forces were outnumbered by the large strength of the British forces. Rani Chennamma was defeated in her last battle and captured by the British, who imprisoned her at the Bailhongal Fort for life, where she passed away on 21 February 1829.

She spent her days reading holy texts and performing pooja till her death in 1829 CE. Kittur Rani Chennamma could not win the war against British, but she etched her presence for many centuries in the world of history. Along with Onake Obavva, Abbakka Rani and Keladi Chennamma, she is much revered in Karnataka as an icon of bravery. Chennamma became a legend. During the freedom movement, her brave resistance to British formed theme of plays, songs, and song stories. Folk songs or “Lavani” were a legion and freedom struggle got a good boost through singing bards who moved throughout the region. (Lavani are the traditional folk songs and the dance format Tamasha contains the dancer (Tamasha Bai), the helping dancer – Maavshi, The Drummer – Dholki vaala & The Flute Boy – Baasuri Vaala).

It is heartening that a statue of Kittur Chennamma was installed in the Parliamentary Building premises at New Delhi on 11th September 2007. However, limiting ourselves to only garlanding the statues will not suffice. The immense contributions of these great warriors to our Freedom Struggle have to be taught to children at homes as well as in schools as part of the school curriculum. Every year Kittur Rani Chennamma’s jayanti has to be celebrated as in “Kittur Utsav”, where skits, elocution and debates have to be conducted depicting the great warrior queen’s life and personality, and showcasing the queen’s grit and determination in fighting the enemy. This will increase the self-confidence in children, as well as inculcate a sense of pride towards the nation, to achieve ultimate glory of our motherland, Bhārat.

References & Acknowledgement:

  1. Heroes of Freedom Struggle – Rani Chennamma of Kitturu – By Dr. Nanditha Krishna
  2. Rani Chennamma – posted in by Ranbir Singh
  3. Essay on Doctrine of Lapse by Mamta Aggarwal (
  4. Rani Kittur Chennamma: India’s Valiant Freedom Fighter – By Shagun Gupta
  5. Rani Chennamma of Kittur – (
  6. Kittur Rani Chennamma – One of India’s first warrior queens – by Prateeksha Nayak
  7. Kittur Rani Chennamma : Earliest ruler to fight British rule – posted in
  8. Rani Chennamma Statue at Parliament – published in The Hindu daily.
  9. Heroes of Civilization : Shakti – posted in


ವೀರನಾರಿ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ

(ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಗೆಲುವಿನ ನೆನಪಿಗಾಗಿ ಪ್ರತಿವರ್ಷ ಅ.23ರಿಂದ 25ರವರೆಗೆ ಆಚರಿಸು ವುದೇ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಉತ್ಸವ.)

ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ವಿರುದ್ಧದ ಹೋರಾಟದಲ್ಲಿ ಬೆಳಗುವ ಹೆಸರುಗಳಲ್ಲಿ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮಳದು ಮುಂಚೂಣಿಯಲ್ಲಿದೆ. ಆದರೆ ಅವಳು ಆಳಿದ ನೆಲ ಇಂದು ದುಸ್ಥಿತಿಯಲ್ಲಿದೆ; ಕೋಟೆ ಕುಸಿಯುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಕಿತ್ತೂರಿನ ಸಮಗ್ರ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಸಾರುವ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯವೂ ರಚನೆಯಾಗಿಲ್ಲ. ಹೀಗಿರುವಾಗ ಮುಂದಿನ ಪೀಳಿಗೆ ಇತಿಹಾಸದಿಂದ ಪ್ರೇರಣೆ ಪಡೆಯುವುದಾದರೂ ಹೇಗೆ?

ಭಾರತದ ಪ್ರಥಮ ಸ್ವಾತಂತ್ರ್ಯ ಸಂಗ್ರಾಮದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ-1857ರಲ್ಲಿ ನಡೆದದ್ದು- ಇಡೀ ದೇಶಕ್ಕೇ ಗೊತ್ತು. ಆದರೆ, ಅದಕ್ಕೂ 33 ವರ್ಷಗಳ ಮೊದಲೇ ಅಂದರೆ 1824ರಲ್ಲೇ ನಮ್ಮ ನಾಡಿನ ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ನೆಲ ಕಿತ್ತೂರಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಹೋರಾಟ ನಡೆದಿತ್ತು. ವೀರರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರನ್ನು ಸದೆಬಡಿದು ವಿಜಯದ ಕಹಳೆ ಮೊಳಗಿಸಿದ್ದಳು. ಆದರೆ, ಈ ಭವ್ಯ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ದೇಶವಾಸಿಗಳ ಗಮನಕ್ಕೆ ಅಷ್ಟಾಗಿ ಬಂದಿಲ್ಲವೆನ್ನುವುದು ಖೇದದ ಸಂಗತಿಯೇ ಸರಿ. ಇನ್ನೊಂದೆಡೆ, ಪ್ರತಿವರ್ಷ ರಾಜ್ಯ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಆಚರಿಸುವ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಉತ್ಸವ ರಾಜ್ಯಮಟ್ಟದ ಉತ್ಸವವಾಗಿ ರೂಪ ಪಡೆಯುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ. ಹೋರಾಟದ ಕೆಚ್ಚೆದೆಯನ್ನೇ ಉಸಿರಾಗಿಸಿಕೊಂಡು ಬೆಳೆದ ಊರು ಕಿತ್ತೂರು. ಇದರ ಮೂಲ ಹೆಸರು ಗೀಜಗನಹಳ್ಳಿ. ಈ ಸಣ್ಣ ಊರು ಪ್ರಸಿದ್ಧವಾಗಲು ಕಾರಣ ರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ. ಕಿತ್ತೂರಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಸ್ಮಾರಕಗಳು, ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಪಳೆಯುಳಿಕೆಗಳು ಹಾಗೂ ವಸ್ತುಗಳು ಒಂದೊಂದೂ ರೋಚಕ ಕಥೆಯನ್ನು ಪಿಸುಗುಡುತ್ತವೆ. ಆದರೆ, ಪ್ರೇರಣಾದಾಯಿಅಧ್ಯಾಯದ ಸ್ಥಳಗಳು ನಿರ್ಲಕ್ಷ್ಯಕ್ಕೆ ಒಳಗಾಗಿ ಜನರ ಗಮನಕ್ಕೆ ಬರುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ.

ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಉತ್ಸವ ಆಚರಣೆ ಏಕೆ?

ಭಾರತವನ್ನು ತಮ್ಮ ಕಪಿಮುಷ್ಟಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಇಟ್ಟುಕೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕೆಂಬ ಕಾರಣಕ್ಕೆ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರು ಒಂದೊಂದೇ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನಗಳ ಮೇಲೆ ದಬ್ಬಾಳಿಕೆ ಹಾಗೂ ಯುದ್ಧ ಮಾಡುತ್ತ ಸಾಗಿದ್ದರು. ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷ್ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿ ಧಾರವಾಡದ ಥ್ಯಾಕರೆ 1824ರ ಅ.23ರಂದು ಕಿತ್ತೂರಿನ ಕೋಟೆಯ ಬಾಗಿಲು ತೆರೆಯಲು ಆಜ್ಞೆ ಮಾಡಿದನು. ಬಾಗಿಲನ್ನು ತೆರೆಯದೆ ಇದ್ದಾಗ ಕೋಟೆಯ ಬಾಗಿಲು ಒಡೆಯುವಂತೆ ಹೇಳಿದನು. ಕೊನೆಗೆ ಯುದ್ಧವನ್ನೂ ಸಾರಿದನು. ಈ ಯುದ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ಪತಿ ಮರಣವನ್ನಪ್ಪಿದರೂ ಹೆದರದೆ ಮುನ್ನುಗ್ಗಿದ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಪರಾಕ್ರಮ ಮೆರೆಯುತ್ತಾಳೆ. ತನ್ನ ಬಲಗೈ ಬಂಟರಾದ ಸಂಗೊಳ್ಳಿ ರಾಯಣ್ಣ ಹಾಗೂ ಅಮಟೂರು ಬಾಳಪ್ಪ ಸೈನ್ಯದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಯುದ್ಧಕ್ಕೆ ಇಳಿಯುತ್ತಾಳೆ. ಮಹಾನವಮಿ ಯಂದು ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷ್ ಕಲೆಕ್ಟರ್ ಥ್ಯಾಕರೆ ಸಾಹೇಬನ ರುಂಡ ಚೆಂಡಾಡಿ ಜಯ ಸಾಧಿಸು ತ್ತಾಳೆ. ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಗೆಲುವಿನ ನೆನಪಿಗಾಗಿ ಪ್ರತಿವರ್ಷ ಅ.23ರಿಂದ 25ರವರೆಗೆ ಆಚರಿಸು ವುದೇ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಉತ್ಸವ. ಈ ಉತ್ಸವದ ಮೂಲಕ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನದ ಸಮಗ್ರ ಇತಿಹಾಸವನ್ನು ಯುವಕರಿಗೆ ಪರಿಚಯಿಸುವ ಸಲುವಾಗಿ 1967ರಲ್ಲಿ ದಿ.ಪ್ರೊ.ವಿ.ಜಿ.ಮಾರಿಹಾಳ ಮಾರ್ಗದರ್ಶನದಲ್ಲಿ ಈರಣ್ಣ ಮಾರಿಹಾಳ ವೀರರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಯುವಕ ಸಂಘ ಹುಟ್ಟು ಹಾಕಿದರು. ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ಸಹಾಯಕ್ಕೆ ಕೈಯೊಡ್ಡದೆ ಯುವಕ ಸಂಘಗಳ ದೇಣಿಗೆಯಲ್ಲೇ ಉತ್ಸವ ಆಚರಿಸತೊಡಗಿದರು. 1982 ರಲ್ಲಿ ದಿ.ಚನ್ನಪ್ಪ ಮಾರಿಹಾಳ ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷತೆಯಲ್ಲಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ವಿಜಯೋತ್ಸವ ಕಮಿಟಿ ರಚಿಸಲಾಯಿತು. ಈ ಕಮಿಟಿ 1996 ರವರೆಗೆ ವಿಜಯೋತ್ಸವ ಆಚರಿಸಿತು. 1997 ರಿಂದ ಸರ್ಕಾರದ ವತಿಯಿಂದ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಉತ್ಸವವನ್ನು ಆಚರಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತಿದೆ.

ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಖಡ್ಗ ವಾಪಸ್ ಬರುವುದೇ?

ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಎಂದಕೂಡಲೇ ಕುದುರೆ ಏರಿ, ಖಡ್ಗ ಝುಳಪಿಸುವ ಚಿತ್ರ ಕಣ್ಮುಂದೆ ಬರುತ್ತದೆ. ಈ ವೀರನಾರಿ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ರುಂಡ ಚೆಂಡಾಡುವ ವೇಳೆ ಹಿಡಿದ ಖಡ್ಗವನ್ನು ನೋಡುವ ಅವಕಾಶ ನಾಡಿನ ಜನರಿಗೆ ಸಿಕ್ಕಿಲ್ಲ. ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನದ ಅರಸರು ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷ್ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಪತ್ರ ವ್ಯವಹಾರ ನಡೆಸಿದ ದಾಖಲೆಗಳು ಇಂದಿಗೂ ಲಂಡನ್​ನ ಭಾರತ ಕಚೇರಿಯ ಪತ್ರಾಗಾರ (ಇಂಡಿಯಾ ಆಫೀಸ್, ಲಂಡನ್)ದಲ್ಲಿ ಸುರಕ್ಷಿತವಾಗಿ ಕಾದಿಡಲ್ಪಟ್ಟಿವೆ. ಇವು ಕಿತ್ತೂರಿನ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಹಾಗೂ 1824ರ ಯುದ್ಧದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಉಪಲಬ್ಧವಿರುವ ಮಹತ್ವದ ದಾಖಲೆಯಾಗಿವೆ. ಈಗ ಕಿತ್ತೂರನ್ನು ಪ್ರತಿನಿಧಿಸುವ ಉತ್ತರ ಕನ್ನಡ ಲೋಕಸಭಾ ಕ್ಷೇತ್ರದ ಸದಸ್ಯ ಅನಂತಕುಮಾರ ಹೆಗಡೆ ಕೇಂದ್ರ ಸಚಿವರಾಗಿದ್ದು, ವಿದೇಶಾಂಗ ಸಚಿವರೊಂದಿಗೆ ರ್ಚಚಿಸಿ ಖಡ್ಗ ಮತ್ತು ಇತರ ಯುದ್ಧದ ವಸ್ತುಗಳನ್ನು ಮರಳಿ ತಾಯ್ನಾಡಿಗೆ ತರುವ ನಿಟ್ಟಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಕ್ರಮ ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳುವರೇ? ಈ ಬಾರಿಯ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಉತ್ಸವದ ಉದ್ಘಾಟನಾ ಸಮಾರಂಭದಲ್ಲಿ ಈ ವಿಚಾರವಾಗಿ ನಿರ್ಧಾರ ಪ್ರಕಟಿಸುವರೇ ಎಂಬುದು ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಅಭಿಮಾನಿಗಳ ಕಾತರವಾಗಿದೆ. ದೇಶಾದ್ಯಂತ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಜಯಂತ್ಯುತ್ಸವ ಆಚರಿಸುವ ಜತೆಗೆ ಲಂಡನ್​ನಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಖಡ್ಗವನ್ನು ಬೇಗ ಭಾರತಕ್ಕೆ ತರಲು ಕೇಂದ್ರ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಕ್ರಮ ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳಬೇಕೆಂದು ಕೂಡಲಸಂಗಮ ಪಂಚಮಸಾಲಿ ಪೀಠದ ಬಸವಜಯ ಮೃತ್ಯುಂಜಯ ಸ್ವಾಮೀಜಿ ಕೂಡ ಆಗ್ರಹಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

ಬೆಳಕು ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆ ಇಲ್ಲ

ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಇತಿಹಾಸವನ್ನು ಸಂಗೀತ ಹಾಗೂ ವಿದ್ಯುತ್ ದೀಪಗಳೊಂದಿಗೆ ಪರಿಚಯಿಸುವ ನಿಟ್ಟಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಆರಂಭಿಸಿದ್ದ ಧ್ವನಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬೆಳಕು ಪ್ರದರ್ಶನ ಉತ್ಸವಕ್ಕೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಸೀಮಿತವಾಗಿದೆ. ಈ ವ್ಯವಸ್ಥೆಗಾಗಿ ಸರ್ಕಾರ 2.80 ಕೋಟಿ ರೂ. ಖರ್ಚು ಮಾಡಿದೆ. ಇನ್ನುಂದೆ ವಾರದಲ್ಲಿ ಎರಡು ಬಾರಿ ಧ್ವನಿ ಮತ್ತು ಬೆಳಕು ಪ್ರದರ್ಶನ ಆಯೋಜಿಸಲಾಗುವುದು ಎಂದು ಕಳೆದ ಬಾರಿ ಉತ್ಸವದ ವೇಳೆ ಜಿಲ್ಲಾಡಳಿತ ನೀಡಿದ್ದ ಭರವಸೆ ಈಡೇರಿಲ್ಲ.

ದುಸ್ಥಿತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಕೋಟೆ

ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಸಾರಬೇಕಿದ್ದ ಕೋಟೆ ಕಳಚಿ ಬೀಳುತ್ತಿದೆ. ಕಿತ್ತೂರಿನ ಇತಿಹಾಸಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿ ರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಮತ್ತು ಬೆನ್ನಿಗೆ ನಿಂತ ವೀರಕಲಿಗಳ ಸ್ಮಾರಕಗಳು ಮುಂದಿನ ಪೀಳಿಗೆಗೆ ಸ್ಪೂರ್ತಿಯಾಗುವ ನಿಟ್ಟಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಯಾವುದೇ ಕೆಲಸಗಳು ಆಗಿಲ್ಲ. ಕೋಟೆಯಲ್ಲಿರುವ ದರ್ಬಾರ್ ಹಾಲ್, ಮದ್ದುಗುಂಡುಗಳ ಸಂಗ್ರಹಾಗಾರ, ಬತೇರಿ, ಅರಮನೆಯ ಮುಖ್ಯದ್ವಾರ, ಅತಿಥಿ ಕೋಣೆಗಳು, ಸಭಾಗೃಹ, ಭೋಜನಾಲಯ, ಪೂಜಾ ಕೊಠಡಿ, ಬಾವಿಗಳು, ಸ್ನಾನದ ಮನೆಗಳು ಮುಂತಾದವು ಅವಸಾನದಂಚಿಗೆ ತಲುಪಿವೆ.

ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಇತಿಹಾಸ

1585-1824ರ ಅವಧಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ ಆಳಿದ ಪ್ರಮುಖ 12 ದೇಸಾಯರಲ್ಲಿ ಕಾಕತಿಯ ದೇಸಾಯಿ ದೂಳಪ್ಪಗೌಡ-ಪದ್ಮಾವತಿಯವರ ಏಕಮಾತ್ರ ಪುತ್ರಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಒಬ್ಬಳು. ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರದ್ದು ಒಡೆದು ಆಳುವ ನೀತಿ. ಈ ಕುತಂತ್ರಕ್ಕೆ ಟಿಪ್ಪು ಹಾಗೂ ಪೇಶ್ವೆಯಂಥ ರಾಜರು ಬಲಿಯಾಗಿದ್ದರು. ಇದು ದೇಶಾಭಿಮಾನಿ ಮಲ್ಲಸರ್ಜನ ಕಳವಳಕ್ಕೆ ಕಾರಣವಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಹಾಗಾಗಿ, ಕೊಲ್ಲಾಪುರದ ದೇಸಾಯರು ಒಳಗೊಂಡಂತೆ ದಕ್ಷಿಣದ ದೇಸಾಯರನ್ನು ಒಗ್ಗೂಡಿಸುವ ಪ್ರಯತ್ನವಾಗಿ ಊರೂರು ಅಲೆದ. ಒಮ್ಮೆ ಕಾಕತಿಗೂ ಬಂದ. ಕಾಕತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ಹುಲಿಬೇಟೆ ಸಂದರ್ಭ ಮಲ್ಲಸರ್ಜನೊಂದಿಗೆ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಭೇಟಿಯಾಯಿತು. ನಂತರ ಇಬ್ಬರ ವಿವಾಹವಾಯಿತು ಎಂದು ಲೇಖಕ ಯ.ರು.ಪಾಟೀಲ ತಮ್ಮ ಕೃತಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ವಿವರಿಸಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

ಟಿಪ್ಪು ಸುಲ್ತಾನನ ಸಮಕಾಲೀನ ಮಲ್ಲಸರ್ಜನು 1782 ರಲ್ಲಿ ಸಿಂಹಾಸನವೇರಿದ. ಆತ ಸಾಹಸಿ ಮತ್ತು ಸಮರ್ಥ ಆಡಳಿತಗಾರನಾಗಿದ್ದ. ದೇಸಾಯಿಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನೊಂದಿಗೆ ಸುಖದಿಂದ ರಾಜ್ಯವಾಳಿ 1816ರಲ್ಲಿ ತೀರಿಕೊಂಡ. ಆಗ ಹಿರಿಯ ದೇಸಾಯಿಣಿ ರುದ್ರಮ್ಮಳ ಮಗ ಶಿವಲಿಂಗಸರ್ಜನಿಗೆ ಆಡಳಿತ ನೀಡಲಾಯಿತು. ಆದರೆ, ರೋಗ ಪೀಡಿತನಾದ ಈತನೂ ಮೃತಪಟ್ಟ. ಆಗ ದತ್ತಕ ತೆಗೆದುಕೊಳ್ಳಲು ಹೊರಟಾಗ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷ್ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಒಪ್ಪಿಗೆ ನೀಡಲಿಲ್ಲ. ಈ ಕುಂಟುನೆಪದೊಂದಿಗೆ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರು ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನವನ್ನು ಅಧೀನಪಡಿಸಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವ ಹೊಂಚು ಹಾಕಿದರು. ಇದನ್ನು ರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ವಿರೋಧಿಸಿದಳು.

ಶಿವಲಿಂಗಸರ್ಜನ ಮರಣದ ನಂತರ ಆಗಿನ ಧಾರವಾಡದ ಕಲೆಕ್ಟರ್ ಥ್ಯಾಕರೆ ಕಿತ್ತೂರಿಗೆ ಬಂದು ರಾಜಭಂಡಾರಕ್ಕೆ ಬೀಗ ಹಾಕಿ ತನ್ನ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗಳನ್ನು ನೇಮಕ ಮಾಡಿದ. ಈ ಕ್ರಮ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನಿಗೆ ಸರಿ ಅನಿಸದೆ ಥ್ಯಾಕರೆ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಯುದ್ಧ ಸಾರಿದಳು. ಆದರೆ, ಸಂಧಾನ ಬಾಗಿಲು ತೆರೆದಿತ್ತು. ಮಾತುಕತೆ ನೆಪದಲ್ಲಿ ಥ್ಯಾಕರೆ ಹೊರಬಂದ. ಆಗ ಕಿತ್ತೂರ ಕೋಟೆ ಬಾಗಿಲು ಮುಚ್ಚಿತು. ಬಾಗಿಲು ತೆರೆಯಲು ನೀಡಿದ ಆದೇಶ ವಿಫಲವಾಯಿತು. ಆಗ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಆದೇಶದಂತೆ ಅಮಟೂರ ಬಾಳಪ್ಪ ಗುಂಡುಹಾರಿಸಿದ್ದೇ ತಡ, ಥ್ಯಾಕರೆ ಹೆಣ ಕೆಳಗೆ ಬಿತ್ತು. ನಂತರ ನಡೆದ ಹೋರಾಟದಲ್ಲಿ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ ಜಯ ಸಾಧಿಸಿತು. ಆದರೆ 2ನೇ ಯುದ್ಧದಲ್ಲಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಸೋತು ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರಿಗೆ ಸೆರೆಯಾಗಿ 1829 ಫೆ.2ರಂದು ಬೈಲಹೊಂಗಲದ ಕಾರಾಗೃಹದಲ್ಲಿ ದೇಹತ್ಯಾಗ ಮಾಡುತ್ತಾಳೆ.

ಹೆಸರಿಗಷ್ಟೇ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಪ್ರಾಧಿಕಾರ

ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದ ಸ್ಥಳಗಳ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಗಾಗಿ ಬಿ.ಎಸ್.ಯಡಿಯೂರಪ್ಪ ಸಿಎಂ ಆಗಿದ್ದಾಗ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಪ್ರಾಧಿಕಾರ ರಚಿಸಲಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಆಗ ಪ್ರಾಧಿಕಾರದಿಂದ ಸಣ್ಣಪುಟ್ಟ ಕೆಲಸಗಳೂ ನಡೆದಿದ್ದವು. ಆದರೆ, ಹಾಲಿ ಮುಖ್ಯಮಂತ್ರಿ ಸಿದ್ದರಾಮಯ್ಯ ಪ್ರಾಧಿಕಾರದ ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷರಾದ ಮೇಲೆ ಹೇಳಿಕೊಳ್ಳುವಂಥ ಯಾವ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಕೆಲಸವೂ ನಡೆದಿಲ್ಲ. ಇತಿಹಾಸವನ್ನು ಸಮಗ್ರವಾಗಿ ಅಭ್ಯಸಿಸದವರು ಹಾಗೂ ರಾಜಕೀಯ ವ್ಯಕ್ತಿಗಳೇ ಪ್ರಾಧಿಕಾರದ ಸದಸ್ಯರಾಗಿದ್ದರಿಂದ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಕೆಲಸಗಳು ಆಗುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ; ಕೇವಲ ಮಹಾದ್ವಾರಗಳ ನಿರ್ವಣಕ್ಕೆ ಮಾತ್ರ ಪ್ರಾಧಿಕಾರದ ಕೆಲಸ ಸೀಮಿತವಾಗಿದೆ ಎಂದು ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಅಭಿಮಾನಿಗಳು ಆರೋಪಿಸುತ್ತಾರೆ.

ಪ್ರವಾಸಿತಾಣವಾಗುವುದೆಂದು?: ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಕಿತ್ತೂರನ್ನು ಪ್ರವಾಸಿತಾಣವಾಗಿ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿಪಡಿಸಬೇಕೆಂಬುದು ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಜನರ ದಶಕಗಳ ಬೇಡಿಕೆ. ಸರ್ಕಾರವೂ ಪ್ರತಿವರ್ಷ ಪ್ರವಾಸೋದ್ಯಮಕ್ಕೆ ಪೂರಕವಾಗಿ ಹಲವು ಯೋಜನೆಗಳನ್ನು ಹಾಕಿಕೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತ ಬಂದಿದೆ. ಆದರೆ, ಅವ್ಯಾವವೂ ಅನುಷ್ಠಾನಗೊಂಡಿಲ್ಲ. ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಉತ್ಸವ ನಡೆಯುವ ಅಕ್ಟೋಬರ್ ತಿಂಗಳು ಬಿಟ್ಟರೆ, ಪ್ರವಾಸಿಗರು ಇತ್ತ ಸುಳಿಯುವುದು ಕಡಿಮೆ. ಇಷ್ಟಾಗಿಯೂ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಕೋಟೆ ನೋಡಲು ಬಂದವರಿಗೆ ನಿರಾಸೆಯೇ ಹೆಚ್ಚು.

ಹೊರಬಾರದ ಸಮಗ್ರ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ: ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನದ ಸಮಗ್ರ ವಿವರ ಇನ್ನೂ ಲಭ್ಯವಿಲ್ಲ. ಮಹಾರಾಷ್ಟ್ರದ ಪುಣೆ ಹಾಗೂ ಲಂಡನ್​ನಲ್ಲಿ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನಕ್ಕೆ ಸಂಬಂಧಿಸಿದ ದಾಖಲೆಗಳಿವೆ ಎಂದು ಹಲವರು ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಆದರೆ, ಅವುಗಳನ್ನು ತಂದು ಕ್ರೋಡೀಕರಿಸುವ ಕೆಲಸ ಆಗಿಯೇ ಇಲ್ಲ. ‘ಈ ದಾಖಲೆಗಳನ್ನೆಲ್ಲ ತಂದರೆ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಆಳವಾಗಿ ಅಭ್ಯಸಿಸಲು ಸಹಾಯಕವಾಗುತ್ತದೆ‘ ಎಂದು ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಕಲ್ಮಠದ ಮಡಿವಾಳ ರಾಜಯೋಗೀಂದ್ರ ಸ್ವಾಮೀಜಿ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಬೆಳಗಾವಿ ಸಮೀಪದ ಭೂತರಾಮನಹಟ್ಟಿಯಲ್ಲಿ ರಾಣಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ವಿಶ್ವವಿದ್ಯಾಲಯವಿದೆ. ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಹೆಸರಲ್ಲಿ ಅಧ್ಯಯನ ಪೀಠ ಸ್ಥಾಪಿಸಿ ವಿದ್ಯಾರ್ಥಿಗಳಿಂದ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಸಾರುವ ಸಂಶೋಧನೆ ಹಾಗೂ ಎಂ.ಫಿಲ್ ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳಲು ರಾಜ್ಯ ಸರ್ಕಾರವು ಪ್ರೇರಣೆ ತುಂಬಬೇಕು ಎನ್ನುತ್ತಾರೆ ರಾಜಯೋಗೀಂದ್ರ ಸ್ವಾಮೀಜಿ.

ಬೈಲಹೊಂಗಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಸಮಾಧಿ: ಬೈಲಹೊಂಗಲದಲ್ಲಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನನ್ನು ಸಮಾಧಿ ಮಾಡಲಾಗಿದೆ. ಈ ಸಮಾಧಿಯನ್ನು ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಯ ಸ್ಮಾರಕವನ್ನಾಗಿ ಮಾಡಬೇಕೆಂಬುದು ಇಲ್ಲಿನ ಜನರ ದಶಕಗಳ ಬೇಡಿಕೆ. ಆದರೆ, ಸಣ್ಣ-ಪುಟ್ಟ ಕಾಮಗಾರಿಗಳು ನಡೆದಿದ್ದು ಬಿಟ್ಟರೆ, ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರೀಕ ಸ್ಮಾರಕವಾಗಿ ರೂಪುಗೊಳ್ಳುವ ಲಕ್ಷಣಗಳು ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಗೋಚರಿಸುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ. ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಜನ್ಮಸ್ಥಳ ಬೆಳಗಾವಿ ತಾಲೂಕಿನ ಕಾಕತಿ ಗ್ರಾಮ. ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಜನ್ಮತಳೆದ ಮನೆ ಕುಸಿದು ಬಿದ್ದಿದ್ದು, ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಕಾಕತಿ ಕೋಟೆಯೂ ಬೀಳುತ್ತ ಸಾಗಿದೆ. ಕೋಟೆ ಅಭಿವೃದ್ಧಿ ಆಗಬೇಕು ಮತ್ತು ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ವಾಸಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದ ಮನೆಯನ್ನು ಪ್ರವಾಸಿ ಸ್ಥಳವನ್ನಾಗಿ ಮಾಡಬೇಕೆಂಬ ಬೇಡಿಕೆಯಿದೆ.

ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಇತಿಹಾಸದ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಲಕ್ಷ್ಯ ವಹಿಸುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ. ಕಿತ್ತೂರನ್ನು ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಸ್ಥಳವನ್ನಾಗಿಸುವ ನಿಟ್ಟಿನಲ್ಲಿ ಕ್ರಮ ಕೈಗೊಳ್ಳುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲ. ಕೂಡಲೇ ಈ ಕೆಲಸ ಆಗಬೇಕಿದೆ.

ಮಡಿವಾಳ ರಾಜಯೋಗೀಂದ್ರ ಸ್ವಾಮೀಜಿ ಕಲ್ಮಠ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು

ಉತ್ಸವ-ಜಯಂತಿ ಗೊಂದಲ

ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರನ್ನು ಸದೆಬಡಿದ ನೆನಪಿಗಾಗಿ ಕಿತ್ತೂರಲ್ಲಿ ಕಳೆದೆರಡು ದಶಕಗಳಿಂದ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಅ.23ರಿಂದ 25ರವರೆಗೆ ವಿಜಯೋತ್ಸವ ಆಚರಿಸುತ್ತ ಬಂದಿದೆ. ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಜನ್ಮದಿನ ಎಂದು ಹೇಳಲಾಗುವ ನ.14ರಂದು ಕಿತ್ತೂರಿನ ಕಲ್ಮಠದಲ್ಲೇ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಜಯಂತಿಯನ್ನು ಆಯೋಜಿಸಲಾಗುತ್ತದೆ. ಈ ಮಧ್ಯೆ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ದಿಢೀರೆಂದು 23ರಂದು ನಡೆಯುವ ಉತ್ಸವದಲ್ಲೇ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ಜಯಂತಿ ಆಚರಣೆಗೂ ಮುಂದಾಗಿದ್ದುದು ತೀವ್ರ ಅಸಮಾಧಾನಕ್ಕೆ ಕಾರಣವಾಗಿತ್ತು. ಹೀಗಾಗಿ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಜಯಂತಿ ಆಚರಣೆಯಿಂದ ಹಿಂದೆ ಸರಿದಿದೆ.

23 ಎಕರೆ ಪ್ರದೇಶ

ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಇತಿಹಾಸ ಸಾರುವ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಕೋಟೆಯು ಒಟ್ಟು 23 ಎಕರೆ ಪ್ರದೇಶದಲ್ಲಿ ನಿರ್ವಣಗೊಂಡಿದೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಐತಿಹಾಸಿಕ ಕುರುಹುಗಳ ಜತೆಗೆ, ವಸ್ತು ಸಂಗ್ರಹಾಲಯವೂ ಇದೆ. ಸಂಗ್ರಹಾಲಯದಲ್ಲಿ ಹಲವು ಮಹತ್ವದ ಶಾಸನಗಳು, ವೀರಗಲ್ಲುಗಳು, ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ವಿರುದ್ಧದ ಯುದ್ಧದ ವೇಳೆ ಸೈನಿಕರು ಬಳಸಿದ್ದ ಸಾಮಗ್ರಿಗಳು, ಆ ವೇಳೆ ಧರಿಸಿದ್ದ ಸಮವಸ್ತ್ರಗಳು ಇವೆ. ಪ್ರವಾಸಿಗರು ವಸ್ತು ಸಂಗ್ರಹಾಲಯಕ್ಕೆ ಭೇಟಿ ನೀಡಿ ಮಾಹಿತಿ ಪಡೆಯುತ್ತಾರೆ.

ಕಲ್ಮಠದಿಂದ ಮಾರ್ಗದರ್ಶನ

ಬ್ರಿಟಿಷರ ವಿರುದ್ಧ ಹೋರಾಡಿದ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನಿಗೆ ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ರಾಜಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ ಕಲ್ಮಠ ಮಾರ್ಗದರ್ಶನ ಮಾಡುತ್ತ ಬಂದಿತ್ತು. ಅಲ್ಲದೆ ಧಾರ್ವಿುಕ, ರಾಜಕೀಯ, ಸಾಮಾಜಿಕ, ಸಾಂಸ್ಕೃತಿಕ ಹಾಗೂ ಯುದ್ಧತಂತ್ರಗಳ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ತಿಳಿವಳಿಕೆ ನೀಡುತ್ತಿತ್ತು ಎಂದು ಪೂರ್ವಜರು ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ. ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಅರಸರಿಗೆ ಮಾರ್ಗದರ್ಶನ ನೀಡಿದ್ದ ರಾಜಗುರು ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನ ಕಲ್ಮಠದ ಆವರಣದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ರಾಜರ ಸಮಾಧಿಗಳು ಮತ್ತು ಚೌಕಿ ಮಠದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ರಾಜಗುರುಗಳ ಸಮಾಧಿಗಳು ಅವಸಾನದಂಚಿಗೆ ತಲುಪಿವೆ.

ಅರಮನೀ ಕಟ್ಟಬೇಕ್ರೀ

ಕಿತ್ತೂರು ಉತ್ಸವ ಇದ್ದಾಗ ಅಧಿಕಾರಿಗೋಳ್ ತಡಬಾಯಿಸಿ ಇಲ್ಲಿಗೇ ಬರ್ತಾರು. ಮತ್ತ ಇತ್ತ ಸುಳಿಯೂದ್ ಇಲ್ಲ. ಕಾಟಾಚಾರಕ್ಕ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ಉತ್ಸವ ಮಾಡಾಕತ್ತಾರು. ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ವಾಸಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದ ಮನೆ ಬಿದ್ದಿದ್ದು, ಅಲ್ಲಿನ ಜಾಗವನ್ನ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ವಶಕ್ಕ ಪಡದ ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಅರಮನೀ ಕಟ್ಟಬೇಕ್ರೀ. ಈ ಬಗ್ಗೆ ಸಿಎಂ ಸಿದ್ದರಾಮಯ್ಯ, ಹಿಂದಿನ ಸಿಎಂ ಯಡಿಯೂರಪ್ಪ ಮತ್ತು ಕುಮಾರಸ್ವಾಮಿಗೂ ಮನವಿ ಸಲ್ಲಿಸಿದ್ದೇವೆ ಎಂದು ಕಾಕತಿ ಗ್ರಾಮದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ವಂಶಸ್ಥ ಬಾಬಾಸಾಹೇಬ ದೇಸಾಯಿ ಹೇಳುತ್ತಾರೆ.


ಹೀಗಿದೆ ಕಾಕತಿ ಗ್ರಾಮ

ಬೆಳಗಾವಿ ತಾಲೂಕಿನ ಕಾಕತಿ ಗ್ರಾಮ ಜಿಲ್ಲಾಕೇಂದ್ರದಿಂದ ಎಂಟು ಕಿಮೀ ದೂರದಲ್ಲಿದೆ. ಇಲ್ಲಿ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮನ ವಂಶದ 6ನೇ ತಲೆಮಾರಿನ ಮೂರು ಕುಟುಂಬಗಳು ವಾಸಿಸುತ್ತಿವೆ. ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ತಂದೆ-ತಾಯಿಯೊಂದಿಗೆ ವಾಸಿಸುತ್ತಿದ್ದ ಮನೆ ಕುಸಿದಿದೆ. 1 ಎಕರೆ, 10 ಗುಂಟೆ ಖಾಲಿ ಜಾಗ ಮಾತ್ರವಿದೆ. ಈ ಜಾಗವನ್ನು ರಾಜ್ಯ ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಕುಟುಂಬಸ್ಥರಿಗೆ ಹಣ ನೀಡಿ ಖರೀದಿಸಿ, ಅಲ್ಲಿ ಮ್ಯೂಸಿಯಂ ಹಾಗೂ ಬಾಲಕಿಯರ ವಸತಿ ನಿಲಯ ನಿರ್ವಿುಸಬೇಕೆಂದು ಹಲವು ಸಲ ಮನವಿ ಸಲ್ಲಿಸಿದ್ದೇವೆ. ಆದರೆ, ಈವರೆಗೆ ಬೇಡಿಕೆ ಈಡೇರಿಲ್ಲ. ಕಾಕತಿ ಗ್ರಾಮದಿಂದ ಮೇಲ್ಭಾಗದಲ್ಲಿರುವ ಶೇ. 75 ಕೋಟೆಯ ಅವಶೇಷಗಳು ಬೀಳುತ್ತಿದ್ದರೂ, ಸರ್ಕಾರ ಗಮನಹರಿಸುತ್ತಿಲ್ಲವೆಂದು ಕಾಕತಿ ಗ್ರಾಮದ ಚನ್ನಮ್ಮ ವಿಜಯೋತ್ಸವ ಸಮಿತಿ ಅಧ್ಯಕ್ಷ ಡಾ.ಎಸ್.ಡಿ.ಪಾಟೀಲ ಹೇಳಿದ್ದಾರೆ.

{Courtesy: ವಿಜಯವಾಣಿ; (Sunday, 22.10.2017)}

Ayodhya Welcomes Prabhu Sri Ram

Welcoming Prabhu Sri Ram to Ayodhya with nearly 1.7 lakh diyas (earthen lamps) at Ram ki Paudi, marked the grand celebrations of Deepavali this year (Vikram Samvat 2074), while a helicopter decorated as “Pushpak Viman” carried Prabhu Ram, Mata Sita and Lakshman Bhayya who were symbolically represented by artists, descended on the Ram Katha Park near Sarayu river in Ayodhya, at the birth place of Sri Ram.

The grand event of this magnitude has happened nearly after “490 years” to the delight of all Bharatiyas filling the spiritual fervor and happiness, reminding us of the nostalgic era of Bharatiya Itihas – Ramayana.

It was in the year 1527 AD, that “Sri Rama Mandir” in Ayodhya was destroyed and demolished by Baburthe barbarous invader. Most celebrations since then were subdued in Ayodhya. Even after Bharat attained independence in 1947, nothing of this magnitude could ever have been imagined. Let alone celebrations, the very birth place of Prabhu Ram was itself challenged and his very existence questioned! The need for a grand Mandir at Ayodhya is still a distant dream, which is being continuously debated and challenged in courts.

The then CM of UP, Mulayam Singh Yadav inorder to checkmate the Mandir movement had ordered indiscriminate firing at Karsevaks and Hindu pilgrims at Ayodhya, only to appease certain sections of the society with his vote-bank politics. The firing at Karsevaks took place on October 30, 1990, when the Ram Mandir movement, spearheaded by Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP), was at its peak.

This year’s grand Deepavali celebrations led by Honorable Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh, Yogi Adityanath, has brought back the glory to Ayodhya in memory of the day when Prabhu Sri Ram along with Seetha mata and Lakshman Bhayya, had returned to Ayodhya as a Victorious King.

Also, these grand celebrations acquire a spiritual and the political significance, as this is the same Sarayu ghat, where Karsevaks were fired upon by police on the orders of the then CM of UP, Mulayam Singh.

By lighting around 2 lakh Diyas, Hon.CM Yogi Adityanath has paid respects to our beloved “Karsevaks” on the banks of river “Sarayu”. These grand celebrations with offering of “Maha aArati” signified the welcoming of Prabhu Sri Ram have once again rekindled hope in Crores of Rama Bhakts, who can reassert and feel proud of being a Hindu. The awakened Hindu has sensed that our festivals and the celebrations are the ones that have kept Hindutva alive, and hence will no longer tolerate any more onslaughts against Hindu ethos.

That is why, DESPITE judicial overreach by the ‘milords’ of Supreme Court to curtail Deepavali celebrations on ‘experimental’ basis, the entire Bharat has gloriously burst the Deepavali crackers, and more this time!

May Prabhu Sri Ram continue to inspire us towards Rama Rajya, a Dharmic way of life.
Jai Sriram. Shubh Deepavali. सियावर रामचंद्र की जय, शुभ दीपावलि.

More pictures at: Ayodhya Welcomes Sri Rama

Coverage in Press:

1.Hon.CM Yogi Adityanath Offers Prayers On The Banks Of River Sarayu.

2. Hon.CM Yogi Adityanath celebrates Diwali in Ayodhya.

3. अयोध्या में भव्य दीपावली महोत्सव.

4. Reuters Video:

5. Video on Ayodhya Movement: