By Arun Kumar
“THE ISSUE OF J&K HAS ENTERED THE PHASE WHERE THE TRUTH HAS TO BE ESTABLISHED BASED ON FACTS AND LOGIC. THE RSS HAS ACCEPTED EVEN THIS CHALLENGE OF THE INTELLECTUAL STRUGGLE AND A CONTINUOUS EFFORT IS ON TO BRING OUT THE TRUTH BEFORE THE PEOPLE THROUGH RESEARCH-BASED STUDIES.”
August 15, 1947.. The whole of Bharat was beaming with the joy of the Independence. The people in Jammu & Kashmir were also breathing in free air after the slavery of centuries. Even this Independence did not appear palatable to the people from a particular class who were inebriated in the communal frenzy. They thought that Kashmir was a Muslim majority state that had to be in Pakistan. They hoisted the Pakistani flags on the government buildings in Srinagar before the sunrise. The people’s reactions arose in hushed tones; but who would come forward? The RSS swayamsevaks came out for the Shakha with the sunrise and they heard this talk. There was a meeting after the Shakha and the swayamsevaks decided that the strong reply would be given. They came together near Amirakdal exactly at 10 am. Patriot citizens also joined them. Thousands of people ferried the roads of Srinagar chanting ‘Bharat Mata Ki Jai’. Within no time, the Pakistani flags were taken down from the government buildings. The Kashmir Valley had then and even now has a Muslim majority. Like today, a gang of nuisance makers existed at that time also who were few in number but had the capability to take the valley hostage. In spite of this, the courage that the citizens showed on August 15, 1947 along with the RSS swayamsevaks by resisting those nuisance makers had the background of a grand programme of the RSS that had started just a few months earlier. The people of Kashmir valley experienced the capability and the discipline of the RSS for the first time in that programme. The programme had taken place at DAV College, Srinagar in which more than one thousand swayamsevaks in their uniforms took part. In his address, the then RSS Sarsanghachalak Poojya Shri Madhavrao Golwalkarji aka Shri Guruji explained the necessity of the unity of the Hindus and appealed to be alert towards the anti-national activities and foil their ploys with the help of united force. This initiative by the swayamsevaks filled the minority but nationalist community, which was affected by an inferiority complex, with enthusiasm. The confidence that arose through it played an important role to face off the Pakistani aggression in coming days.
Those were stormy days. The prominent RSS workers in Jammu & Kashmir could hear the sound of coming tragedy and were working on a war footing, with their all might, to avoid it. In this regard, some prominent swayamsevaks had even penetrated among the pro-Pakistani conspirators in the areas that are today in the Pak-occupied area as well as in Srinagar because of which they received confirmed reports of the conspiracies being hatched in Karachi and Rawalpindi. On the one hand, the swayamsevaks were gathering information by staking their lives and on the other hand, the work of uniting the youths was on constantly through the Shakhas. The reports coming from the border areas was worrisome and the swayamsevaks were determined that they would try everything to save Jammu & Kashmir from the Pakistani conspiracy. When the plan of attack on October 22 was prepared on October 13, 1947, in the presence of Mohammad Ali Jinnah, a swayamsevak was present there in disguise. The RSS headquarters at Srinagar had received this information by night which was conveyed in time to Brigadier Rajendra Singh and Brigadier Fakir Singh. Likewise, the swayamsevaks were the first to receive the information of the Pakistani conspiracy to abduct Maharaja Hari Singh during his tour of Bhimber. The then Sanghachalak of Jammu Pt. Premanth Dogra alerted Maharaja in time because of which the latter changed his programme. The attack on Bhimber failed and Maharaja’s life could be saved.
On the Path of Duty
Brig. Rajendra Singh was martyred while combating the Pakistani attackers in Uri. In that difficult situation, Maharaja Hari Singh himself called Shri Balraj Madhok, who handled the entire expedition on RSS behalf, to his Palace. Prime Minister Mehar Chand Mahajan said clearly, “We want youths from you who can go to Baramulla tomorrow itself and help the military in stopping the enemy from entering Kashmir valley.” Shri Madhok said, “The hearts of our youths are full of spirit, enthusiasm, they are ready to shed their lives for the nation, but they are not soldiers. They have neither arms nor the training to use them. In such a situation, how helpful can they be?” Brig. Fakir Singh said instantly, “The RSS swayamsevaks are patriots and educated. We will train them and make them soldiers within a day.” “So, how many swayamsevaks do you want?” “150, tomorrow at 7 am.” It was 12 am. The Mukhya Shikshaks of Rainawadi, Parana City and Amirakdal were awakened from the sleep and given the responsibility of informing their swayamsevaks by 3 am to gather in the RSS office at 6 am with the preparedness of going to the war zone. The smaller groups of swayamsevaks started coming to the RSS office from the 5 am itself. By 7 am, more than 200 swayamsevaks had gathered of which 150 swayamsevaks were selected. Those who were rejected had tearful eyes. After an inspiring address by Shri Madhok, there was Sangh prayer and the swayamsevak left in the trucks towards the camp at Badami Bagh.
Ready for your cause…
The whole of Kashmir was expecting the Bharatiya army to reach any moment. However, wider airstrips were needed for the landing of the military planes and they were not there. The swayamsevaks finished the challenging task of constructing airstrips at three places – Srinagar, Jammu and Poonch by toiling day and night.
On the Path of Sacrifice
The first aeroplane of the Indian Air Force landed in Srinagar on October 27, 1947. Within next ten days, the Bharatiya Army captured all the area up to Uri. When the Pakistanis had to retreat from Kashmir, they increased their pressure on Jammu. Both Bhimber and Meerpur had fallen into Pakistan’s hands. More than 50,000 citizens were killed mercilessly. It is impossible to describe what happened to thousands of mothers and sisters. The grip was tightening around Kotli. The possibility of getting military help was dim. An IAF aeroplane threw eight boxes of ammunition but it also fell into the enemy-controlled territory. It was neither possible to bring it back from among the enemy nor fighting without it. The RSS swayamsevaks came forward to turn the impossible to possible. Kotli’s Nagar Karyavah Chandra Prakash took seven swayamsevaks beside him and reached to the box of ammunition scrawling. A nullah in the way was to be crossed swimming. The sounds emanating from the water alerted the enemy. They were inching forward and pushing the box amidst the showering of bullets. All of a sudden, bullets hit Chandra Prakashji and Ved Prakashji, but they had no time to look after them. The other swayamsevaks took their boxes and went ahead. They returned after successfully handing over the ammunition to the soldiers. Both the swayamsevaks passed away. They had to carry their dead bodies on their back and scrawl upwards on the hill. The showering of the bullets was becoming intense. Two more swayamsevaks were hit by the bullets and remaining two colleagues lifted them on their back. All four swayamsevaks were cremated on the same pyre on the outskirts of the Kotli town. They lived up to their vow. The soldiers had enough ammunition now that they took with them and started marching ahead on the same road from where it was brought. The Pakistani guns were rendered silent with the sunrise. The tricolour was flying high on the hill ahead. This Body fells for You, Salute Salute! Kotli was now in full control of the Bharatiya Army. A report came abruptly that the aggressors had surrounded 1200 Hindus in Palandhari, 20 kms away from there. Kotli could not be left unsecured, hence soldiers in large number could not be sent there. It was determined that three soldiers, 15 jawans of Jammu & Kashmir Police and 100 swayamsevaks would go to Palandhari for this mission. The enemy got the information of this mission in advance because of a traitor officer and they were all prepared for this. The entire unit fought till their last breath; none of them returned alive.
The second stage of the RSS work started after creating a successful history of sacrifices. The challenge lay ahead after the ceasefire came into being of looking after those who had come as the migrants and displaced, after losing everything and near and dear ones, in Jammu and its vicinity. Sheikh Abdullah did not allow even the state’s own people to stay in Kashmir and pushed them towards Jammu. It is a travesty that Jammu has remained a land of these displaced people even today. RSS asked help from the society for the urgent necessities of these people and started working on priority issues like their food, shelter, security and medical help. The swayamsevaks yoked themselves to the service of these migrants and displaced, without thinking about themselves, as they stood firm like a wall before the enemy during the time of Pakistan’s aggression.
Praja Parishad and its Agitation
Disturbed by the Pakistani atrocities against his subjects, Maharaja Hari Singh even accepted the illogical demand of handing over the power to Sheikh Abdullah and signed on the letter of annexation. Immediately after assuming charge, Sheikh started dealing with a stern hand with his political opponents. People of Jammu were considered to be the supporters of Maharaja and they were attacked as well. This situation forced the people of Jammu to form their own political party. Jammu Praja Parishad was formed by projecting Shri Premnath Dogra, a consensus personality who was once the Deputy Commissioner of Muzaffarabad. Its president and minister, Hari Wazir and Hansraj Sharma respectively, were young but its functioning and organisation were backed by the belligerent leadership of Shri Balraj Madhok. The Praja Parishad spread its wing all over the state in no time. Praja Parishad took many efforts to resolve the problem. Its leadership put forward the actual position before Sheikh Abdullah in the state and Sardar Patel and Prime Minister Pt. Nehru in Delhi. Infuriated with this, Sheikh expelled Shri Madhok, his parents and his family from Jammu and put Pt. Premanth Dogra in jail. The opposition was growing and Sheikh’s brutality also. On his instance, the administration was inflicting free-willed atrocities against Praja Parishad workers and supporters. The developments like Delhi Accord happening under Sheikh Abdullah’s pressure, announcement of the Sadr-i-Riyasat after changing the President-approved head of the state etc. created an atmosphere of uncertainty and distrust in the state. As a result, the Praja Parishad was forced to move towards a decisive agitation.
Heat of the Agitation in Delhi
The agitation was at its peak in Jammu. The agitators were facing canes and bullets every day. Processions supporting the agitation started in Delhi too and a series of protests went on. The police caned the agitators brutally in Hauz Qazi in which 60 persons were injured. The teargas shells were also thrown. This instigated the protests even more. The annual meeting of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh was on at the time in Kanpur. The Jana Sangh announced an eight-member fact-finding team to be sent to Jammu but the Bharatiya government did not allow it to go there. Jana Sangh, Hindu Mahasabha and Ramrajya Parishad announced their decision to observe March 5 jointly as the Jammu Day. Section 144 was imposed at all major places in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. A big rally was organised in the ground in front of Delhi Station that was presided by Karpatri Maharaj. Jana Sangh’s president Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee addressed the rally. The police arrested Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee, Barrister Nirmalchandra Chaterjee, Nandlal Sharma and Vaidya Gurudutt in the midst of the crowd. A satyagrah was announced in Delhi and Pathankot against the arrest of Dr. Mookerjee and police atrocities. Praja Parishad is credited with providing a platform for the citizens in Jammu & Kashmir, who wanted to associate their identity with Bharat. The agitation of the nationalist forces under its leadership foiled the British conspiracy to break Kashmir away from Bharat and the ploys of Sheikh Abdullah to become Kashmir’s sultan. It was also successful in attracting the nation’s attention on this point and create a strong public opinion.
Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee’s Martyrdom
When the people of Jammu were struggling for their survival under the leadership of Praja Parishad, the national leader and Jana Sangh president Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee, who was former Industries Minister in Nehru cabinet, went to Jammu with three other MPs namely Shri V.G. Deshpande, Shri Ram Narayan Singh and Barrister Uma Shankar Trivedi in August 1952. Dr. Mookerjee gave a strong boost to the agitation, which was on with the slogan ‘one law, one ruler and one flag’. Addressing a rally during this time, he announced, “Either I will obtain the law or sacrifice myself.” A unanimous resolution in this regard was passed in the first session of Jana Sangh at Kanpur in December 1952 under which it was decided to extend full support to the Praja Parishad’s agitation and make it nationwide. It was also proposed to get cooperation from other nationalist organisations. There was no restraint to Sheikh’s tyranny in Jammu while Pt. Nehru was adamant in Delhi that he would trample the agitation with canes and bullets. Not only the opposition leaders and parties, even ruling party members could do little more than watching on helplessly. Satyagrah in March and April rocked Delhi. The satyagrahis were coming from all over the country and getting arrested themselves. They were mistreated not only on the road but in jail also. The trampling by the government was in full swing. On this background, Dr. Syama Prasad Mookerjee announced as the last measure on May 7, “I will go to Jammu tomorrow”. It is notable here that when the agitation in Delhi was in full swing, two other members of Lok Sabha Barrister U.M. Trivedi and Hindu Mahasabha’s general secretary Vishnu Ghanshyam Deshpande had announced their visit to Jammu. They were arrested in Jalandhar on April 17. However, the Supreme Court acquitted and released them. The Bharatiya government learned from this that if he were arrested within the SC’s jurisdiction, he would also be released. Thus, Nehru and Sheikh’s plans would not bear fruit. Until then, Jammu and Kashmir was not in the jurisdiction of the SC of Bharat. Hence, he was arrested in Jammu & Kashmir’s borders. According to former Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, who accompanied Dr. Mookrjee then as a journalist, the Deputy Commissioner of Gurudaspur himself came to him and said they would arrange everything for his visit. He said they did not want to stop him. There would be no hurdle in his travel because of him. They were ready to make his travel comfortable. However, as they reached halfway on the Madhopur Bridge, the Jammu & Kashmir police arrested him. The government did not allow Barrister Uma Shankar Trivedi, who had gone to file a petition in the Jammu & Kashmir High Court against the arrest, to meet him. He could meet Dr. Mookerjee only when the Jammu & Kashmir HC allowed him to do so. The verdict on Barrister Trivedi’s petition was scheduled on June 23. Everyone expected that Dr. Mookerjee would be released on this day. However, he died in suspicious conditions just on the eve of that day. His colleagues arrested with him were released. Dr. Mookerjee’s sacrifice bore fruit and the permit system was abolished. Many provisions of the Bharat’s constitution were enforced in the state.
A Silent Penance
For the next three decades, the central government carried out political experiments in Jammu & Kashmir. Through these experiments, Congress maintained its place in the state’s politics by overlooking the anti-Bharat activities and sometimes even by protecting them. As Pakistan changed its strategy after the defeat in Bangladesh, the separatists also changed their tunes. Sheikh Abdullah even started saying that Jammu & Kashmir’s annexation to Bharat was final. Impressed by this, Sheikh was again made the Chief Minister. For RSS, this was the period of silent penance. It knew that the direction in which the political ambitions were taking the state were not in people’s interests. Hence, a new age of struggle was inevitable to come and all nationalist forces had to unite in it. The RSS’ doubts proved true soon and the role of ever-ready force of RSS proved effective.
Against the Terrorism
Pakistan indulged in its strategy of inflicting thousand cuts on Bharat. The separatists living in the valley became its agents. The mainstream political parties closed their eyes towards them. The Ram Janmabhoomi agitation was instrumental in flaring up the communal sentiments in Kashmir. Rumour was spread in Kashmir that homicide of Muslims was going on while Jammu was all-calm. The naked dance of violence was started in Kashmir on this pretence. By 1989, the administration became totally helpless before the terrorists. Announcements of Nizam-e-Mustafa were being made from the mosques. Hindus were told to leave the valley. The terrorists killed prominent personalities like BJP vice president Shri Tikalal Tapalu, RSS senior member Shri Premnath Bhatt, Justice Neelkanth Ganju who pronounced the death sentence on Makbul Bhatt, Doordarshan’s director Lasa Kaul, etc. In this background, all religious and social organisations in Jammu & Kashmir were called together on the instance of RSS and Jammu Kashmir Sahayata Samiti was formed. The Samiti worked for the registration and rehabilitating the displaced on safer places. The swayamsevaks all over the country went from home to home, collected food, money, clothes and medicines on the appeal of the Samiti, and distributed them to the displaced.
Giving the first-hand experience to the people of the country was necessary so that they get an idea of the severity of the situation. More than 11 thousand boy and girl students from the country reached Jammu on the appeal of Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad and witnessed the reality. The ABVP had announced hoisting of tricolour in the Lal Chowk of Srinagar but the administration, which failed to stop the insult to the tricolour, stopped these nationalist youths from marching ahead. These youths, arrested with the tricolour, were placed in the jail at Udhampur for one day and released. From there, these students went to Delhi, sat before the residence of the then Prime Minister Vishwanath Pratap Singh, and handed over the tricolour with a challenge to hoist it in Lal Chowk.
Jammu-Kashmir Bachao Abhiyan
The women’s nationalist organisation Rashtra Sevika Samiti organised nationwide Jammu-Kashmir Bachao Abhiyan from March 29 to 31, 1991 for creating awareness. An attempt was made to draw the nation’s attention towards the situation in J&K through a grand awareness yatra and a public rally in Jammu on March 31. Thereafter, these sisters went to the displaced camps and witnessed the ground situation.
The Bharatiya Janata Party announced the Ekata Yatra to convey the state’s situation to every citizen. This Rathyatra started from Kanyakumari under the leadership of BJP’s then national president Dr. Murali Manohar Joshi on December 11, 1991. Resonating the chants of Bharat Mata Ki Jai in every village and town, this Yatra reached Srinagar on January 26, 1992 after crossing all hurdles where the tricolour was hoisted as announced in advance. More than 50,000 patriotic people reached Jammu to witness this moment but they could not reach Srinagar because of the road blockage. Finally, about 40 persons were taken to Srinagar by aeroplane. The terrorists’ threats proved useless and the nation’s pride emerged victoriously.
Towards Total Integration
This phase of terror was testing for the nationalist forces. Today, terrorism and separatism are fighting the last battle for its survival. The nationalist forces have emerged triumphant through this. There was a time when most of the people and even government thought that the Kashmir was slipping out of hand. Some opined that the state should be trifurcated and at least Jammu and Ladakh should be secured. Many advocated making the Line of Control the international border. The nationalist forces in Jammu & Kashmir have rejected all this negativity and proved their strength by their perseverance. The question today is how to regain the Bharatiya territory across the LoC. How to allay the confusion on the issue of Jammu & Kashmir that was created due to international diplomacy? How to end the falsehood that was established through the silence of the central government for six decades and bring the truth before the people? The issue of Jammu Kashmir has entered a new phase where the truth has to be established based on facts and logic. The RSS has accepted even this challenge of the intellectual struggle and a continuous effort is on to bring out the truth before the people through research-based studies in a phased and scientific manner. The way the issue of Jammu Kashmir has assumed centrality during last few years itself proves the relevance of these efforts.
(Sri Arun Kumar ji is Former Prant Pracharak of Jammu & Kashmir and presently Akhil Bharatiya Prachar Pramukh of RSS )
Communist ecosystem notorious for creating fake narratives, has this time taken up a new project in Telangana – to create the legend of a fake hero: George Reddy.
A movie eulogizing him will be released shortly and as a precursor marketing exercise, a series of articles have started appearing in some dailies like Hans India & some social media platforms. Some of the articles have gone as far as presenting him as a messiah.
This piece will attempt to bring to fore that side of his life which is being hidden from people.
Emergence of George Reddy in Osmania University : :
In 1969-70, a small group eulogizing Argentine Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara emerged in Osmania University under George Reddy.
George came from a troubled childhood. His mother was a Christian from Kerala and father belonged to Chittoor district. They separated when George was eight years old.
During his college days , he was inspired by the emerging Naxalite movement in Naxalbari and started reading Marxism. George indoctrinated a handful of students with Che’s ideology and gave them training in using weapon such as knuckle-dusters, blades and knives. They camouflaged their political ideology by associating themselves with NSUI, the student wing of Congress and direct patronage from Congress leaders.. He used to release pamphlets under the name ‘PDS’. This acronym was later used to form the PDSU or the Progressive Democratic Students Union.
George Reddy’s emergence coincided with rise of Naxal Terror:
This development coincided with the armed uprising in distant Srikakulam district of Andhra Pradesh. That phase of naxal insurgency lasted for four years (1968-72) during which 156 ‘class enemies’ were eliminated by naxals. This innocuous figure was no indicator of the terror let loose by them. A large number of people including women and children were mercilessly thrashed. Hundreds had lost limbs. To frighten the common people and to prevent them from giving evidence in courts, the armed squads exhibited medieval barbarism. They used to chop body into pieces in front of wailing family members after killing an opponent. They used to severe the head of their target and hang it to a bamboo pole in the very courtyard of the victim’s house. In some instances, the chopped heads of the victims were hung to the doors and rafters. A number of opponents were tortured to death before dazed and wailing near and dear ones. They used to dip their hands in the blood of the victims and used their blood as ink to scribble slogans on the walls.
George Reddy : A votary of barbaric violence
George Reddy was also cast in the same mould. In his book ‘Maoism’ Sri Piratla Venkateshwalu , wrote that George used to instigate the new recruits with the slogan
” You are not a true communist, until your hands are not soaked in the blood of the class enemy ”
There were 14 criminal cases against him since 1968. In 1970, he stabbed two students of Law College in the Osmania University campus. Neither Osmania University nor any other educational institution in Andhra Pradesh earlier witnessed such intimidating violence. The violence shook not only the students and academics circles but had reverberations across the state. The University Syndicate rusticated him. However, the Vice-Chancellor had to revoke the rustication within few weeks due to pressure exerted by some fellow-travellers.
It is now being propagated that George Reddy was winning elections in OU. The truth, however, is otherwise. In 1970, the ABVP won large number of Student Unions in Hyderabad and Telangana. George Reddy’s nominee for Osmania University Science College union lost the election. This made him bitter and he decided to take revenge on ABVP and also teach a lesson to the general students.
Terror on OU campus by George Reddy
George Reddy was actively used by the splinter groups within the Congress party which was going through an internal power struggle. The Communists were in strategic alliance with the Congress.
In August 1971, George and his gang used to roam around in Hyderabad in APCC jeep at freewill and struck terror. They abducted ABVP activist Ch. Narasimha Reddy, a PG student, from his hostel room in the Osmania University Campus and thrashed him severely with hockey sticks and rods. This was followed by an attack on Ch.Vidyasagar Rao, President of Law College Union. His jaw was dislocated and had to be hospitalized for several weeks. The group then picked up another ABVP leader Narayan Das from his residence, beat him severely and abandoned him in a remote location assuming he was dead.
This attack was followed by another attack in which N. Indrasena Reddy, Secretary of Hyderabad ABVP unit, Surdas Reddy and other activists received serious head injuries. The then Congress Government preferred to turn blind eye to these heinous criminal acts. George Reddy’s murderous attacks on ABVP activists continued unabated. The count of those injured swelled each passing day.
Death of George Reddy & After:
During the campaign for the Student Union elections of OU Engineering College, scheduled in April 1972, George Reddy raided the Engineering Hostel with his armed goons to terrorize the common students.
George neither belonged to the college nor was he resident there. Whereas the candidate who was contesting against George’s group was a resident of the hostel. What business did George have in raiding the Engineering college hostel if the intentions were not hostile ? George Reddy lost his life in that clash.
The postmortem report which was enclosed with the Charge-sheet discloses very interesting facts which the public didn’t know. A knife and a lethal weapon called knuckle- duster was found concealed in George Reddy’s clothes. Knuckle duster is a specially made weapon shaped like a hand with claws and nails. It is worn on the hands and is used to beat, scratch and claw opponents. It also came to light later that George Reddy used this weapon against his opponents in the past too.
The newspapers came out with banner headlines indicting ABVP and RSS for murdering a NSUI leader. Unfortunately, none of the journalists bothered to check the extremist background of George Reddy. A section in the Congress sensed political opportunity in his death and used its might to exploit the incident and tried to crush ABVP. The cartage of the dead body, led by Congress leader S.Jayapal Reddy, was deliberately halted in front of the State Headquarters of RSS in Hyderabad and inflammatory slogans were raised. Some even tried to jump over the gate.
Former Chief Minister Kasu Brahmanand Reddy, who was also a Christian paid a visit to the family of George Reddy to express his solidarity. Some leaders from the Congress, CPI and CPM submitted a memorandum to Prime Minister Indira Gandhi to take stringent action against the RSS. But the Intelligence Wing of the Police knew what this group was upto.
ABVP activists Charge sheeted, High Court Cleared Them:
The Police charge-sheeted nine people including six ABVP activists. They remained in jail for six months until acquitted by the trial court. On the day of their release, the NSUI took out a procession in the campus shouting objectionable slogans such as: “Not the Courts but we pronounce the judgment and will punish them.” The Government went in appeal to the High Court. But the High Court upheld the lower court’s judgment. The incident and the legal battle put a lot of strain on the ABVP.
End Note :
As per MHA report, the violence unleashed by the forces that George Reddy represented have claimed the lives of over 12000 people in the last two decades ( 1996 to 2018 ) of which close to 8000 are civilians. The BBC put this number at 6000 in its report. It is in the interest of society that such violent and misguided individuals are not eulogized but presented for what they represent, viz hatred, jealousy & violence motivated by narcissism. The cloak that they put on must be unmasked.
- ‘Seven Decades My Journey with an Ideology’ by Prof S.V.Seshagiri Rao.
- Struggle Against Nation Splitters
- BBC report : 1st July 2010
- MHA : 1st Oct 2017
- South Asian Terrorism Portal
- Archive – Jagriti Weekly, 1972
Summary of the address by Param Poojaniya Sarsanghchalak Dr. Shri Mohan ji Bhagwat on the occasion of Sri Vijayadasami Utsav Yu 5121 , (Tuesday, October 8, 2019)
(Translation from the original in Hindi) – Content Source : http://www.rss.org ;
(Pictures added additionally )
Respected chief guest, invited guests who specially came here to witness this function, venerable seers, Mananeeya Sanghchalaks, all Mananeeya Adhikaris of the Sangh, mothers, sisters, eminent citizens and beloved Swayamsevak brothers.
The year preceding this Vijayadasami was very special as the 550th Prakash Varsh of Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji and the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi. The programmes planned in this connection will continue for some time till their scheduled time-period ends. In the meanwhile, Dattopant Ji Thengadi’s birth centenary year will also start from November 10. However, some important events that had taken place in the past year have made it more memorable to us.
The Lok Sabha election results were declared in the month of May. These elections attracted the attention of the whole world. The timely and systematic conduct of the elections in Bharat, a country of continental proportion brimming with diversity, was the prime cause of attraction for the world. Similarly, was the change in 2014 a mere result of a negative political wave born out of the disenchantment against the previous government, or the people had made up their mind to go in a specific direction: was to be seen in the elections of 2019. The world took note of that also. The people have expressed their firm opinion: democracy is not a new unfamiliar thing that has been imported from outside but it has been ingrained in the national psyche as a result of centuries of tradition and collective experiences and enlightenment gained during the post-independence period; and as a result, the society has resolved to remain in and take forward democracy successfully. This fact came to the attention of all. The society by electing the new government with an increased number of seats has endorsed its past performance and expressed a lot of expectations for the future.
The move of the re-elected regime to nullify Article 370 has once again proved that it has the courage to fulfill those expectations and respect people’s sentiments and wishes in the interest of the country. Removal of Article-370 has been already in the thought of the ruling party. But this time by skillfully garnering the support of other parties in both houses, with strong logic and plea in consonance with public sentiment the work was accomplished, for which the members of the ruling party, including the Prime Minister and Home Minister, and other political parties who upheld the public sentiments in Parliament deserve congratulations. This effort will come to fruition only when justice denied under the influence of Article 370 is restored, injustices occurred are brought to an end. It will happen when our Kashmiri Pandits who were unjustly driven away are brought back and rehabilitated and allowed to remain secure, fearless, patriotic and Hindu. Many a right of residents of Kashmir which were denied to them so far will be restored, and false fears instilled in the minds of brothers of the Valley that there is a threat to their property and jobs due to the nullification of Article 370, will be removed and having done away with those fears, they will be able to perform their duties towards the country’s development with brotherly affinity and concord with the people of the rest of Bharat.
In the month of September, our scientists, with their talent, had caught the attention and earned the praise and sympathy of the scientific community of the entire world when they landed Chandrayaan’s “Vikram” on the hitherto unexplored region, the South Pole of the Moon. Although the mission did not attain full success as expected, achieving so much in the first attempt itself is a feat not accomplished so far by the entire world. Due to this daring mission of our scientists, the world’s admiration for our country’s intellectual genius and scientific prowess and commitment to realise the goals through hard work has increased. The matured intellect and action of the people, an awakened sense of pride in the country and firm commitment of the government along with experience of our scientific expertise— all these pleasant feelings have made the last year memorable forever.
However, this is not the time either to revel in the given pleasant circumstances or become lazy and let down our guard and loose our interest, become inactive, indulge in luxury and selfishness, leaving everything to the government. Our ultimate goal – making Bharat glorious and prosperous – towards which we have started our journey is still far off. The forces, seeking to create hurdles in the path and block the way, have not yet stopped their machination. There are some crises before us, which needed to be overcome. There are some questions, which need to be answered by us. And, there are some problems for which we need to find solutions to tackle them.
As far as crises are concerned, there are always circumstances where there are problems in the life of an individual or the world. Some crises are visible. Some come to the fore later. As long as our body, mind and intellect remain alert, healthy and responsive, the possibility of successfully tackling the crises will also increase. Fortunately, the security capability of our country, preparedness of our armed forces, security policy of our government and the situation of our expertise in international politics– in all these aspects the situation has developed to such a level that we remain alert and confident. The security alertness along our land and maritime borders is better now. However the number of guards and checkposts on land borders, and surveillance along the maritime border, especially on islands, have to be increased. The terrorist violence has declined in the country. The number of terrorists surrendering is also on the rise.
Still, for a human being, there is always a fear of a possible crisis from within as well. The agents that cause many a trouble reside in the body. If the body’s immunity comes down their impact becomes visible, otherwise, there won’t be any hassle.
We all know that, in the past few years, there has been a transformation in the direction of the thought process of Bharat. There are many people in the world and in Bharat as well, who do not want this. A developed Bharat creates fear in the minds of vested interests: such forces will also not want Bharat to be strong and vibrant. Unfortunately, the prevailing state of social unity, equality and harmony in Bharat is not up to the desired level. These forces are seen to be taking advantage of the situation. thereby creating diverse and conflicting streams in the national mainstream – such efforts are underway. It is essential to be alert in identifying these plots and counter them on intellectual and social planes. Even well-meaning policies, decision or statements coming from persons in the government or administration are used by misinterpretation or distortion, to benefit their nefarious designs by these forces. Alertness is a constant necessity. While all these activities are underway, there is an overt or covert effort to create disaffection towards the civil discipline and law of the land. This has to be countered at all levels.
Nowadays, there have been reports that members of a community in our society have been attacked by another community, making them victims of social violence. Such incidents have not been one-sided. There are reports of incidents happening from both sides and allegations and counter-allegations. It has also come to light that some incidents have been deliberately fabricated while some others have been published in a distorted manner. However, it must be accepted that these tendencies of violence have somehow or the other crossed the limits of the law and order and wreaked havoc by eroding the mutual relations in the society. Neither this tendency is the tradition of our country nor does it fit in the spirit of the Constitution.
Howsoever deep the difference of opinion be, howsoever provocative actions might have taken place, still, we should act by remaining within the limits of Constitution, handing over such cases to the police and reposing faith in the judicial system of the country. This is the duty of the citizens of a free nation. The Sangh has never supported the people who were involved in such incidents and it stands against each and every such incident. Swayamsevaks are working in this direction so that such incidents do not take place. But by branding such incidents by the words like ‘lynching’, denoting the traditions which were alien to Bharat and belong elsewhere, efforts are underway to defame our country and the entire Hindu society and create fear among the so-called minority communities. We have to understand that such a conspiracy is also being hatched. Everyone should keep away from talking in provocative language or indulging in provocative acts. The so-called leaders—who in the name of advocating the interests of a specific community create clash in between the two communities of our society and have made an industry out of their pursuits for self-aggrandisement—should not be patronised. Adequate laws exist in the country to curb such incidents. They must be honestly and strictly implemented.
Different sections of the society should strive to increase goodwill, dialogues and cooperation among themselves. In today’s context, it is absolutely important to work for the goodwill, harmony and cooperation among all sections of society and follow the discipline by keeping ourselves within the limits of Constitution while expressing our ideas or working for the protection of our interests. The Sangh Swayamsevaks have been taking efforts to enhance this type of dialogues and cooperation. Even then, decisions on some matters are required to be taken by the courts. Whatever be the decision, it is the duty of responsible citizens that they should not hurt the mutual goodwill through words or deeds. It is not the responsibility of any one community; it is the responsibility of all. Each one should follow it and start with oneself.
Slowing down of the world economy has left its impacts everywhere. Many countries including Bharat have to suffer the resultant of the ongoing global trade war between the US and China. The government has taken many initiatives to tide over the situation in the last one-and-a-half months. This gives a definite indication of the government’s sensitivity towards people’s interests and its prompt and pro-active attitude. We will definitely come out of this cycle of so called recession. The personalities leading our economy are competent enough.
To strengthen the economy, the government is compelled to take steps such as allowing Foreign Direct Investment and disinvestment of industries. However, while implementing many government schemes and welfare policies at the lower level, more alacrity and efficiency and avoiding unnecessary stringency can set many matters right.
Forgetting the Swadeshi consciousness, while seeking answers to the pressures of the situation, will also lead to loss. Dattopant Thengadi considered ‘Swadeshi’ as an expression of patriotism in day-to-day life. Acharya Vinoba Bhave described it as self-reliance (Swaavalamban) and non-violence (Ahimsa). As per any yardstick, those who have got the capacity to be self-reliant and provide employment for all in the country, keeping themselves secured, can only build and expand the international trade relations and offer a secure and healthy future for the entire humanity. Considering our economic scenario, even if we have to choose any circuitous route, we must overcome the compulsions once and for all by setting a destination and direction based on our own strength.
However, to minimise the impact of other immediate crises and the ups and downs of the world economy on our financial system, we need to go to the basics and ponder. We have to formulate our own economic vision keeping in mind our requirements, profile and condition of our people and our resources and potential to realise our national aspirations. The prevailing world economic thought is unable to answer many questions. Its standards are also incomplete in many ways; this fact has come before several economists of the world. In that situation, we have to take steps to formulate our own economic vision, policy and system that instil in us capacity to create more and more employment with least consumption of energy that is beneficial for the environment, make us self-reliant in every respect, and create and expand trade relations with the world on the basis of our strength and terms.
We are lagging behind in thinking about this ‘Swa’ even decades after attaining Independence, the root cause behind this is the education system, which was contrived during the period of slavery to keep us slaves, and the same is being continued even after attaining freedom. So we have to give a shape to our educational framework also in tune with Bharatiya vision. Evidently, when we study about the countries, which topped in the field of education in the world, we find that the reason of their academic excellence is the attention they have given to the Swa-centred education. We need a relevant, logical, truthful, dutiful education system, based on an approach on the basis of love towards the whole universe and compassionate outlook towards all living beings, which gives comprehensive knowledge and pride about our language (Swa Bhasha), our attire (Swa Bhoosha), and our culture (Swa Sanskriti). We feel the need for a radical transformation from curriculum to teachers’ training. This cannot be achieved through mere structural changes.
Along with the absence of these components in education, degradation of culture and unethical and immoral behaviour in the society are the reasons behind the two major issues in social life. In a country where women were revered as mothers (matruvadparadareshu), where big wars were waged to protect the self-respect of women that became subject of the great epics Ramayan and Mahabharat, where martyrdoms like jouhar took place to safeguard the chastity, there the spate of incidents which are happening today indicates that our mothers and sisters are not safe and secure both in family and society; this is matter of shame for all us. We have to make our mothers enlightened, self-reliant, and capable of self-protection. The sanctity and decency of our culture is to be instilled in the men’s approach towards women.
We all know, right from childhood this training starts in the family atmosphere. Sheer absence of this is seen in today’s nuclear families. Another frightening symptom of this is the growing level of drug addiction in the new generation. There was a time when even the youth of a culturally rich nation like China were made drug addicts by foreign powers, rendering them soulless. The prevention of the devastating consequences of this social evil will be a very difficult task unless our families cultivate a strong mentality to abstain from temptation of durgs, incline towards moral life, and keep away from getting allured; thus, avoid these dangers. In this regard, it is imperative that all guardians including the Sangh Swayamsevaks remain alert and active.
Rampant financial and character corruption, which is being experienced in the society, primarily emanates from this cultural degradation. From time to time, in order to control this, laws are being made and examples are set by severely punishing the corrupt persons. Though healthy and clean corrective measures are taken at the top level, the corrupt practices continue to take place at the low level. And, at times, apparently making use of these controlling measures, corruption is growing. In the perplexity of following the stringent laws, honest persons suffer and get entangled in difficulties, and those shameless and defiant who disregard law and morality flourish by circumventing the system. This is not just government’s responsibility. The greed to amass more without deserving, without any or less effort, has crept into our minds in the form of a perversion, is the root cause of corruption. In the social atmosphere, transforming the situation through awakening and setting examples of ideal conduct in households, is an inevitable responsibility for health and order of this country.
Media have a major role in awakening the society and creating a conducive social atmosphere. Coming out of the commercial attitude of churning out mere spicy and sensational contents, if the media join in creating a constructive atmosphere, this endeavour will gain momentum.
Just as the situation in our society underscores the need for us to wake up and think about making the atmosphere healthy, similarly the external environment of the entire world demands a broad initiative of the humanity. The policy initiative to make the environment healthy is a subject related to the process of ushering in appropriate and inclusive changes in the environmental policies of all nations. However, taking necessary steps towards bringing in minor changes in the day-to-day behaviour of common people is also effective in this direction. The Sangh Swayamsevaks are also doing many such works in this field. To make all their activities more systematic, an endeavour namely ‘Paryavaran Gatividhi’ has started as a social project.
For the last nine decades, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh has been working for creating ekatmata (unity), sadbhavana (goodwill), sadacharan (good conduct) and sadvyavahar (good behaviour) in the society, and a clear vision and devotion towards the nation. It is quite evident that the service mentality and devotion of Swayamsevaks have created a trust all over the country. However, attempts are being made to create distrust, fear and hostility among sections who have not yet come in contact with the Sangh. The Sangh is organising the Hindu society: a relentless and misconstrued campaign is going on to extrapolate this to mean that it harbours hatred against those sections, especially Muslims and Christians, who do not call themselves Hindu. There is an orchestrated effort to malign the Hindu society and Hindutva through a number of baseless and slanderous allegations. Behind this nefarious design, there is a thought process, which is relentlessly working to keep our society divided and make use of it for its self-interests. This is so clear that only those who deliberately keep their eyes shut don’t grasp it.
The vision and proclamation of the Sangh regarding the identity of the nation, social identity of all of us, and the identity of the country’s nature, are clear, well-thought-of and firm that Bharat is Hindustan, Hindu Rashtra. In the view of the Sangh, the word Hindu is not confined to just those who call themselves Hindus. Those who belong to Bharat, those of who are descendants of Bharatiya ancestors, those who are working for the ultimate glory of the nation and joining hands in enhancing peace by mingling with each other and accepting, respecting and welcoming all diversities; all those Bharatiyas are Hindus. Whatever may be their mode of worship, language, food habits, lifestyle, and native place, those will not make any difference. Strong person and society are fearless. Such strong people, with unblemished character, will not frighten anyone. Only the weak people, due to fear born out of their feeling of insecurity, will try to frighten others. The Sangh is making the whole Hindu society such strong, virtuous and benevolent that it will not fear or frighten anyone, but save the weak and the frightened.
The confusing concept of the word Hindu, the imagination of confining this to the framework of religion has been distracting our intellect right from the time of the British. There is a section of society, which does not accept this word. They use the term Bharatiya for themselves. Some people address the civilisations based on the Bharatiya nature and culture as Indic in English. Those who use alternative words for themselves, out of fear or confusion, and negate the word Hindu, are also acceptable for the Sangh. Words may be different, ways and customs and mode of worship may be different, food habits and lifestyles may be different, nativity may be different, state and language may be different, but we are not considering those sections of society different from each other. Accepting all those as our own, the Sangh work goes on. This feeling of affinity and inclusiveness is the consciousness of the nation. That is Hindutva. The sacred goal of fulfilling the relevant, all-round glory of our ancient nation and preserving as well as enhancing the Dharma Pran nature and culture, is at the core and destination of this affinity.
For the world, Bharat is an absolute necessity. Bharat has to stand on its own strong foundation of nature and culture. So with this clear concept about the nation and its pride in mind, it is necessary to make the feelings of goodwill, good conduct and harmony strong in the entire society. In all these endeavours, the Sangh Swayamsevaks have a significant role to play and will continue to do so. The Sangh Swayamsevaks are active in making the plans useful for this a success. Accepting the challenges of the times, each Swayamsevak has to work for this.
However, this need of the hour will be fulfilled only when we do away with the mentality of leaving the responsibility of this task upon an individual or organisation and become a mute spectator. The task of achieving progress of a nation, finding solutions to the problems of society, seeking redemption of crises: all these cannot be outsourced. Someone or the other may take up the task of leading, from time to time, but it is impossible to attain the complete and eternal success unless the enlightened society with a clear vision, selfless and honest effort and impenetrable unity do not volunteer to intervene with strong force.
The Sangh is working to create Karyakartas who are able to build congenial atmosphere for this work. The activities carried out by these Karyakartas in the society and their impact have proved today that this is the right way to make us, our family, our country and our world happy.
This is the appeal to you all, taking into account the requirements of current period, we all should participate in this noble and sacred mission.
युग परिवर्तन की बेला में , हम सब मिलकर साथ चले
देश धर्म की रक्षा के हित , सहते सब आघात चले
मिलकर साथ चले, मिलकर साथ चले
भारत माता की जय .
Lecture #1: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5281
Lecture #2: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5290
Lecture #3: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5294
24th April 1965
C H A P T E R- 4
Yesterday we had discussed the functions of State in a Nation. According to the Bharatiya traditions, a nation is an organic living entity which has come into existence on its own and has not been made up or created by any group of persons. A nation brings forth a variety of institutions to fulfill its needs, as well as to give concrete shape to its inner fundamental nature. The State is one of these institutions which though being an important institution, is not supreme. In our literature where the duties of a king are referred to, his importance is definitely recognized. This is so, perhaps, to make him realize his immense responsibility. He exercised tremendous influence on the lives and character of the people. Hence he had to give due attention to his own behavior. Bhishma has said the same thing, in Mahabharat when he was asked whether circumstances make a king or a king makes the circumstances. He categorically stated that the king shapes the circumstances. Now some persons interpret this to mean that the considered the king above all. But this is not true. He did not suggest that the king was above Dharma. It is true that the king wielded a great deal of influence and that he was the protector of Dharma in society, but the king could not decide what constitutes Dharma. He only saw to it that people led their lives according to Dharma. In a way he was equivalent to present day executive.
In the present State, the executive has the responsibility to execute the laws properly, but does not enact laws. When the executive does not function with honesty and efficiency, the laws are entirely disregarded, as we see very well around us. We can well say today “Executive is responsible for the present evils to a great extent.” After all why has prohibition failed? Who is responsible for the failure?? When those very persons who have been entrusted with the task of implementing prohibition. Start taking monthly allowances from the bootleggers, how is the prohibition policy to succeed? The executive is, therefore, responsible for the proper enforcement of law. This is the meaning of Bhishma’s statement. It would be a mistake to interpret it as acceptance of approved supremacy of a monthly allowances from the bootleggers, how is the prohibition policy to succeed? The executive is therefore, responsible for the proper enforcement of law. This is the meaning of Bhisma statement. It would be a mistake to interpret it as acceptance of approved supremacy of a king. If this were so, how was it that the tyrant king Venu was removed by the Rishis and Prithu was enthroned?
This action by the Rishis was never condemned by any one in history. On the contrary it was hailed by everyone. When the supremacy of Dharma is accepted as a principle, then, though the authority of Dharma, the Rishis derive a right to remove a king who defaults in his duty. Otherwise, it would have been absolutely illegal to remove a king from his throne. Thus if a King does not act according to Dharma, it becomes the duty of everyone to remove him. In Western countries, either a King was removed by some other king or people rejected the sovereignty of king altogether. There king was a representative of God and could under no circumstances be removed at least in principle.
In our socio-political set-up, the king and the State were never considered supreme. Not only that, there were other important institutions, (besides the State, which was only one of them) to regulate and to help carry on the social life. Those institutions had been organized both on horizontal and vertical level, i.e. on original and occupation basis. We have evolved Panchayats and Janapada Sabhas. The mightiest of the king did not ever disturb the Panchayats. Similarly there were associations on the basis of trade. These two were never disturbed by the State; on the contrary their autonomy was recognized. They devised their own rules and regulations in their fields. The Panchayats of different communities, shrines, nigams, Village Panchayats, Janapada Sabhas and such other Organization used to set- up regulations. The function of the state was mostly to see that these rules are observed by the persons concerned. The State never interfered with the affairs of these associations. Thus the State was concerned only with some aspects of life of the Society.
Similarly, in the economic field many institutions are created. We have to think what should be the nature of our economic structure. We must have such an economic system which helps in the developments of our humane qualities, or civilization and enables us to attain a still higher level of all round perfection. We should have a system which does not overwhelm our humane quality; which does not make us slaves of its own grinding wheels. According to our concept, man attains God like perfection as a result of development. What structure, what regulation should be specified in our economic system if we wish to achieve this goal? Let us, consider this point.
Economic system must achieve the production of all the basic things essential for the maintenance and development of people as well as the protection and development of the Nation. Having satisfied the basic minimum requirements, the question naturally arises, whether there should be more production for greater property and happiness. The Western societies consider it most essential and even desirable to go on continuously and systematically increasing the desires and needs of man. There is no upper limit in the context. Normally desire precedes the efforts at producing the things desired. But now the position is reverse. People are induced to desire and use the things that have been and are being produced. Instead of producing to meet the demand, the search is on the markets for the goods already produced; if the demand does not exist, systematic efforts are made to create demand. This has become the chief characteristic of the western economic movement. Earlier, production followed the demand, now demand allows the production. Consider the use of tea for example. Tea was produced because people desired and wanted it. But Tea was produced and we were induced to develop taste for tea. Now tea is a common man’s drink. It has become a part of our life. Similar is the case of vegetable ghee. Did anyone ever want to use it? It was first produced and then we were taught to use it. If whatever is manufactured is not consumed, there will be depression. Some of us many remember the great depression of 1930-32. There was abundance of goods at that time but there was no demand. Therefore factories had to be closed down.
Bankruptcy and unemployment were widespread. Thus now-a-days it is most important that what is being produced must be consumed. The Editor of “Organiser”, an English Weekly, had gone to USA for a visit sometime ago. Upon his return, he related an interested instance. There is a factory producing “Potato-peelers”, a device for peeling potatoes. The production of this factory outstripped the demand for the device. The management of the firm faced the problem of finding some way by which people may be induced to buy more potato peelers. They called a meeting of all the salesmen of the firm. Among the suggestions put forward, one was to make the color of the handle similar to that of potato peel. so that along with the peel. the peeler may also be dumped in the garbage, often by mistake. Thus there may be greater demand. Also, the product was offered in a more attractive packing. Now this economic structure is not merely consumption oriented but is clearly leading to destruction. Throw away the old one and buy a new one! Rather than satisfying the need and demand from people. to create fresh demand has become the aim of modern economics.
Supposing that we need not worry about the limited supply of natural resources, there is yet the question of balance in Nature. There is a relationship in different parts of Nature. If from the three sticks standing with mutual support, one is removed, the other two will automatically fall. The present economic system and system of production are fast disturbing this equilibrium of nature. As a result on the one hand new products are manufactured for satisfying ever increasing desires, on the other hand new problem arise every day, threatening the very existence of the entire humanity and civilization. It is essential, therefore, to use up that portion of the available natural resources which the nature will be able to recoup easily. When the fruits are taken, the fruit tree is not injured: it may even be helpful to the tree. However, in the effort to take a greater harvest from the land chemical fertilizers are used which in a few years time render the land altogether infertile. Lakhs of acres of land lie barren in America due to this factor. How long this dance of destruction can go on?
The destruction provides for depreciation fund to replace the machines when worn out. Then how can we neglect the depreciation fund for nature. From this point of view, it must be realized that the object of our economic system should be, not extravagant use of available resources, but a well regulated use. The physical objects necessary for a purposeful, happy and progressive life must be obtained. The Almighty has provided as much. It will not be wise, however, to engage into a blind rat-race of consumption and production as if man is created for the sole purpose of consumption. Engine needs coal for its proper working, but it has not been produced merely to consume coal. On the contrary it is only proper always to see that with the minimum coal consumption, maximum energy is produced. This is the economic view point. Keeping in view the aim of human life, we must endeavor to see how with the minimum of fuel, man proceeds to his goal with the maximum speed. Such a system alone can be called civilization. This system will not think of merely a single aspect of human life but of all its aspects including the ultimate aim. This system will not thrive on the exploitation of nature but will sustain nature and will in turn itself be nourished. Milking rather than exploitation should be our aim. The system should be such that overflow from nature is used to sustain our lives.
If such human angle inspires the economic system than our thinking on the economic question will undergo through transformation. In the Western economics, whether it is capitalist or socialist, value has the most important and central position. All economic theories centre around value. It may be that the analysis of value is very important from the point of view of the economist but, those social philosophers which are based entirely on value are for incomplete, inhuman and to some extent unethical take. For example, the slogan commonly heard now-a-days “one must earn his bread”. Normally communists use this slogan but even the capitalists are not fundamentally in disagreement with it. If there is any difference between them, it is only as regards who earns and how much. The capitalists consider capital and enterprise as important components of production and hence if they take a major share of profits, they think it is their due. On the other hand, communists believe only labor to be the main factor in production. Therefore they concede major share of production to the laborers. Neither of these ideas is correct. Really speaking, our slogan should be that the one who earns will feed and every person will have enough to eat.. The right to food is a birthright. The ability to earn is a result of education and training. In a society even those who do not earn must have food. The children and the old, the diseased and the invalids, all must be eared for by the society. Even society generally fulfills this responsibility.
The social and cultural progress of mankind ties in the readiness to fulfill this responsibility. The economic system must provide for this task. Economics as a science does not account for this responsibility. A man works not merely for bread alone, but also to shoulder this responsibility. Otherwise those who have had their meals would no longer work. Any economic system must provide for the minimum basic necessities of human life to everyone. Food, clothing and shelter constitute, broadly speaking these basic necessities. Similarly, the society must enable the individual to carry out his obligations to the society by properly educating him. Lastly, in the event of an individual falling a prey to any disease society must arrange for his treatment and maintenance. If a government provides these minimum requirements, then only it is a rule of Dharma. Otherwise, it is a rule of Adharma. Describing the King Dilip, Kalidas has said in Raghuvansha “Being responsible for the maintenance, protection and education of his subjects, he was their true farther. Others were merely instrumental in giving them their birth”. The description of king Bharat after whom our country has been named Bharat, also runs similarly, i.e. “by maintaining and protecting his subjects he was called Bharat.” This is his country, Bharat, if in this country maintenance and protection are not guaranteed, and then the name Bharat is meaningless.
Education – A Social Responsibility
To educate a child is in the interest of the Society itself. By birth a child is an animal. He becomes a responsible member of the society only by education and culture. To charge fees for something which is in the interest of the society itself a rather odd. If due to the inability to pay the fees, children are left without education, will the society endure the situation for long? We do not charge fee from trees for sowing the seed and caring for the supplying. On the contrary we invest our money and efforts. We know that when the tree grows, we shall reap fruits.
Education is a similar investment. An educated individual will indeed serve the society. On the other hand it will not be surprising if people grow indifferent to the society, which leave them to fend for themselves. Before 1947, in all the princely states In India, no fees were charged for education. The highest education was free. In the Gurukulas, even food and lodging were arranged without any charge. The student used to go to the society for “Bhiksha”. No householder would refuse the Bhiksha to the student. In other words, society used to bear the burden of education. Similarly, it is rather surprising that medical treatment must be paid for. In fact, medical treatment also should be free as it was in this country in the past. Now-a-days one has to pay even to gain entrance to a temple. In Tirupathi, to enter the Balaji temple, there is a charge of 0.25 paise. However, at noon for one hour, there is Dharma Darshan, which means, during that time, no ticket is needed, as if at other times there is Adharma Darshan. The society should guarantee to all members minimum requirements for maintenance and progress of every individual. Now the question arises that if everyone is to be guaranteed the minimum necessities, where will the resources for all this come from?
Guarantee of Work
It is clear that the resources must be produced by our own efforts. Therefore, where a right to a guaranteed minimum is recognized, any individual who does not share in the efforts to produce is a burden to the society. Similarly any system which obstructs the production activity of the people is self destructive. Such a system will not enable the individuals to fulfill their responsibility. Not only that, but even if the requirements of an individual are met, while he does not share in the efforts, his personality will not develop fully, his progress as a human being will be distorted and lop-sided. Man has stomach as well is hands. If he has no work for his hands, he will not get happiness even if he gets food to satisfy his hunger. His progress will be obstructed. Just as a barren woman experiences emptiness in life and consequent dissatisfaction, so does a man without work. The guarantee of work to every able bodied member of the society, should be the aim of our economic system. Today we witness a very strange situation. On the one hand, a ten-year-old child and seventy-year-old man are toiling and on the other hand youth of twenty five is driven to suicide for want of work. We shall have to remove this mismanagement. God has given hands to every man but by themselves hands have a limited capacity to produce. They need assistance of capital in the form of machines.
Labor and capital bear the same relation to each other as that between man and nature. The world is a creation of these two. Neither of them can be neglected.
For capital formation it is essential that a part of production be saved from immediate consumption and be used for further production, in future. Thus capital can be formed only by restraint on consumption. This is the basis of capital formation to which Karl Marx refers to as “surplus value” in his treatise. In the capitalist system the industrialist creates capital with the help of this surplus value. In a socialist system, the state undertakes this task. In both the systems, the entire production is not distributed among the workers. If production is carried on through centralized large-scale industries, the sacrifice on the part of the worker in creating the capital is not given due recognition. The advantage in decentralization is in the fact that the workers have a sense of direct participation in the management of this surplus value or capital. Machine is the most common form of capital. Machine was created in order to reduce the content of physical labor in production and to increase the productivity of the worker. Machine, therefore, is an assistant of the worker and not his competitor. However, where the human labor came to be considered as a commodity to be purchased with money, the machine became the competitor of the human being. The principal drawback of the capitalist view point in the fact that by making the machine a competitor of human labor and thereby displacing and competitor of human labor and thereby displacing and subjecting human being to privations the very purpose of creating machine has been defied. Machine cannot be blamed for this. It is the fault of the economic and social system which cannot distinguish between the object and the instrument. We shall have to take into account the limitations on usefulness of machines and decide on its field of application. From this point of view to import the machinery from Western countries, where shortage of manpower was the guiding factor in the design of machines would be a serious mistake.
The merits of machine are, not independent of time and place. Machines are a product of the modern science but not its representatives. Scientific knowledge is not a monopoly of any particular country. But its application has to take into account the particular condition of each country and its requirements. Our machines must not only, by tailored for our specific economic means, but also must, at least, avoid conflict with our socio-political and cultural objectives, if not support them. Professor Vishvesaraya has said in one of his books, that while considering the system of production one must take into account the seven ‘M’s. These are man, material, money, management, motive power, market and machine. The skill and ability of the workers or those who should be provided with work must be considered. Easy availability of the required raw material and the quality and properties of the raw materials available cannot be ignored. We must also think of how much money is available as capital. How this capital can be increased and at what rate? How best it can be utilized for maximum production? How much of it should be put in the fixed assets and how much should be kept in the liquid form? We must also pay attention to the form of power available in the country in addition to the human and animal labor.
Wind, water, steam oil, gas, electricity and atomic power can supply the motive power. Of these, which form of power can be obtained in what quantity and without being uneconomic must be thought of while deciding upon our methods of production. In the same way managerial skills are also important and deserve the attention. If the ability to co-ordinate the efforts of a dozen workers are wanting, all of them will remain unemployed. It is also necessary to think of the usefulness of the goods produced to the society. This means that production of any particular commodity cannot be justified economically without the consideration of the market it commands. Taking into consideration all these factors we should design suitable machines. Instead, we find now-a-days that we install the machines first and try to coordinate all other factors afterwards. Other countries of the world did not progress in this fashion. Otherwise new machines would not have been invested. We are importing the machines and hence, we have little knowledge. We shall have to develop a Bharatiya technology.
None of the seven factors is unchangeable. In fact each one keeps constantly changing. Those who are entrusted with the task of planning must think of how the change is directed towards progress, how physical hardship is reduced, and waste of energy is minimized. As an illustration let us take the low productivity of our worker. It can be increased by using machines, and it is necessary to do so. But if the machine is such that requires only a few men to run it, then the rest of the people will be thrown out of employment. If the machine has to be imported from other countries at such a heavy cost that the additional production it causes will be insufficient to make it economic, then such a machine is not suitable to our requirements. Just as to let a part of the installed capacity of a factory remain unutilised is a losing proposition, so also to let the people of this country remain unemployed is a losing proposition. May, this is even worse.
Whereas a machine ties up only the capital invested in it in past, the unemployed people have to be fed, which is continuous and unending drain on resources, consumed at double the speed. Therefore instead of the usual exhortation “Every worker must get food”, we must think of “Everyone who eats must get work”, as the basis of our economy. No doubt charakha has to be replaced by machines but not necessarily automatic machines everywhere. Full employment must be a primary consideration and then the rest of the six factors suit this.
Man’s Place In The Economy
The use of manpower and the employment question will have to be thought of in the context of the human being as a whole, as an integral being. The economic theories of the past few centuries and the structure of society based on these theories, have resulted in a thorough devaluation of the human being. His personality is altogether irrelevant to the economic set up. Capitalist economy recognizes only an “economic man”, whose all decisions are based entirely on calculations of gain and loss, in terms of material wealth. For this economic man, five rupees are always more than four rupees. He works solely to gain more wealth, and execs to get the maximum gain. For him, just like other commodities, human labor is a commodity to be bought and sold in the market. This is free enterprise. It holds all other restriction and regulations unjust, save the brake of competition. In the race no one is prepared to stop and give a helping land to the weak, who is left behind; elimination of the weak is considered just and natural.
He is uneconomic, marginal unit, not fit to exist. This is what it advocates. By the elimination of such marginal units, the economic power accumulates in the hands of a few. This is considered normal and natural is capitalist system. But when monopoly is a established, even the check of competition ceases to operates. In such a. situation the incentive resulting from competition is no longer available. Prices are arbitrarily fixed and quality of products deteriorates. Even as regards the consumer’s needs, the capitalist is guided not by the necessities and desires of the consumer, but by his purchasing power. The needs of the wealthy and the well fed are attended to rather than those of the poor and the hungry. As a result where countless varieties of goods are produced for he needs of the wealthy, even the basic necessities of life for the poor become scarce. The centralization and monopolization of reduction totally undermine the influence of the consumer. The markets are so organized that the consumer has to go by standard products. This standardization is on the increase at such a pace that individual preference of the consumer is ignored. Like the books in the library, even human beings are allotted numbers as consumers. The system which boasts of giving highest importance to the individual has ironically destroyed all individuality. Clearly, the capitalist system is incapable of helping the development of an integral human being.
Socialist System Is A Reaction
Socialism arose as a reason to capitalism. But even socialism failed to establish the importance of the human being. Socialists contented themselves by merely transferring the ownership of capital in the hands of the State. But the State is even more of an impersonal institution. All the business of the State is conducted by rigid rules and regulations. Generally, there is no place for individual discretion and even where such discretion is allowed, the slightest laxity in the sense of duty and social responsibility on the part of the administrators’ results in corruption and favoritism. The capitalistic system thought merely of the economic man, but left him free in other fields where they could exercise his individuality. The socialist system went much further thinking only of the abstract man. After that, there was no scope for the development of the individual personality based on diverse tastes and abilities. The needs and preferences of individuals have as much importance in the socialist system as in a prison manual. There is no such thing as individual freedom in the socialist system
State’s Claims on Individual
There is no private property in a socialist society. This removes the problems attendants to the institution of private property. However., the incentive for production and conservation of resources and economy in utilization accompany the institution of private property. There has been no alternative arrangement to preserve these. The State is made supreme and sole authority in all matters. Individual citizen is reduced to mere cog in this giant wheel. There are no provisions to inspire the individual to fulfill his role. As Djilas states, the class of old fashioned exploiters has been eliminated, but a new class of bureaucratic exploiter has come into existence. Karl Marx put forward, in his analysis of history, that capitalism contains the seeds of its own destruction and that communism is a natural and inevitable successor to capitalism.
This concept may be helpful in fostering faith in the communist about their ultimate victory but certainly such a determinist view destroys the urge for reforms and dynamism in man. He is no longer the creator of a new order; he is merely incidental to a predetermined historic process. His task is only to accelerate the process. Therefore, even as he tries to organize workers, he cares little for their welfare, but uses them as mere tools for the revolution. The dialectic materialism of Marx, too, operates only so long as state is note established as supreme after destroying the capitalists. Thereafter, the state puts a stop to the operation of the principle of dialectic materialism. In the name of crushing and counter revolutionaries, the state becomes more and more totalitarian. The day when the state is to wither away yielding place to a stateless society remains a mere dream. In fact according to the Marxist view, to obstruct the process of these antitheses, is itself reactionary. Marx is thus falsified by his own standards. Both these systems – Capitalist as well as Communist, have failed to take account of the Integral Man, his true and complete personality and his aspirations. One considers him a mere selfish being lingering after money, having only one law, the law of fierce competition, in essence the law of the jungle; whereas the other has viewed him as a feeble lifeless cog in the whole scheme of things, regulated by rigid rules, and incapable of any good unless directed. The centralization of power, economic and political, is implied in both. Both, therefore, result in dehumanization of man. Man, the highest creation of God. is losing his own identity. We must re-establish him in his rightful position, being him the realization of his greatness, reawaken his abilities and encourage him to exert for attaining divine heights of his latest personality. This is possible only through a decentralized economy. We want neither capitalism nor socialism. We aim at the progress and happiness of “Man”, the Integral Man. The protagonists of the two systems fight with ‘Man’ on the state. Both of them do not understand man, nor do they care for his interests.
Our Economic System
The Objectives of our Economy should be
- An assurance of minimum standard of living to every individual and preparedness for the defense of the nation.
- Further increase above this minimum standard of living whereby the individual and the nation acquires the means to contribute to the world progress on the basis of its own ‘Chiti’.
- To provide meanings employment to every able bodies citizens by which the above two objectives can be realized and to avoid waste and extravagance in utilizing natural resources.
- To develop suitable machines for Bharatiya conditions (Bharatiya Technology) taking note of the availability and nature of the various factors of production (Seven ‘M’s).
- This system must help and not disregard the human being, the individual. It must protect the cultural and other values of life. This is requirement which cannot be violated except at a risk of great peril.
- The ownership, state, private or any other form of various industries must be decided on a pragmatic and practical basis.
These are a few general directions which we must bear in mind while developing our economy. “Swadeshi” and “Decentralization” are the two words which can briefly summarize the economic policy suitable for the present circumstances. Centralization and monopolization have been the order of the day for all these years, knowingly or unknowingly. The planners have become prisoners of a belief that only large-scale centralized industry is economic and hence without worrying about its ill-effects, or knowingly but helplessly, they have continued in that direction. The same has been the fate of “Swadeshi”. The concept of “Swadeshi” is ridiculed as old fashioned and reactionary. We proudly use foreign articles. We have grown over independent upon foreign aid in everything from thinking, management, capital, methods of production, technology, etc. to even the standards and forms of consumption. This is not the road to progress and development. We shall forget our individuality and become virtual slaves once again. The positive content of “Swadeshi” should be used as the cornerstone of reconstruction of our economy.
For want of time, I have not touched the natural aspects of economic structure. But one thing is clear that many old institutions will yield place to new ones. This will adversely affect those who have vested interests in the old institutions. Some others who are by nature averse to change will also suffer by efforts of reconstruction. But disease must be treated with medicine. Strength can be gained only from exercise and hard work. Therefore, we still have to discard the status-quo mentality and usher in a new era. Indeed our efforts at reconstruction need not be clouded by prejudice or disregard for all that is inherited from our past. On the other hand, there is no need to cling to past institutions and traditions which have outlived their utility. We have considered what the direction of change should be. We have in the last four days thought over the integrated from of Humanism. On the basis we shall be able to reconcile nationalism, democracy, socialism and world peace with the traditional values of Bharatiya Culture and think of all these ideals in an integrated form. The mutual conflict among these ideals can be removed and they can supplement mutually. Thereby the “Man can gain his lost status and attain the aims of his life”.
We have here discussed the philosophy. But the members of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh are not mere philosophers or academicians. We have set out with the determination to make this nation strong, happy and prosperous through the medium of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. Therefore, we must carry on practical programs for the nationalist reconstruction on this foundation. We have taken due note of our ancient culture. But we are no archeologists. We have to intention of becoming the custodians of a vast archeological museum. Our goal is not merely to protect the culture but to revitalize it so as to make it dynamic and in tune with the times. We must ensure that our nation stands firm on this foundation and our society is enabled to live a healthy, progressive and purposeful life. We shall have to end a number of traditions and set in reforms which are helpful in the development of values and of national unity in our society. We shall remove those traditions which obstruct this process. Whereas one need not mourn the limitations of the human body, one must undergo the required social operation if any part of the body has cancerous growth. There is no need to to amputee healthy limbs. If today, the society is gripped with evils like untouchability which lead men to treat other human beings as lower than themselves and thereby threaten the national unity, we shall have to end s such evils.
We shall be required to produce such institutions as will kindle the spirit of action in us, which will replace the self-centeredness and selfishness by a desire to serve the nation, which will produce not only sympathy towards our brethren, but a sense of affection and oneness with them. Such institutions can truly reflect our ‘Chiti’. ‘Chiti’ is a nation’s soul. The strength and energy activating the nation is called “Virat” and channeled by ‘Chiti’. The place of ‘Virat” in the life of nation is similar to that of Prana in the body. Just as ‘Prana’ infuses strength in various organs of the body, refreshed the intellect and keeps body and soul together; so also in a nation, with a strong ‘Virat’ alone can democracy succeed and the government be effective. Then the diversity of our nation does not prove an obstacle to our national unity. The difference of languages, occupations, etc. are present everywhere. However, when the ‘Virat’ is awake, diversity does not lead to conflicts and people co-operates with each other like the various limbs of the human body or like the members of a family.
We have to undertake the task of awakening our nation’s ‘Virat’. Let us go forward in this task with a sense of pride for our heritage, with a realistic assessment of the present and a great ambition for the future. We wish neither to make this country a shadow of some distant past nor an imitation of Russia or America. With the support of Universal knowledge and our heritage, we shall create a Bharat which will excel all its past glories, and will enable every citizen in its fold to steadily progress in the development of his manifold latent possibilities and to achieve through a sense of unity with the entire creation, a state even higher than that of a complete human being; to become Narayan from ‘Nar’. This is the external divine from of our culture. This is our message to humanity to cross roads. May God give us strength to succeed in this task.
BHARAT MATA KI JAI
25th April 1965
Lecture #1: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5281
Lecture #2: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5290
Lecture #3: https://arisebharat.wordpress.com/?p=5294