Category Archives: Hindutva

Swadeshi and Decentralisation – Pt Deendayal Upadhyay

The concept of “Swadeshi” is ridiculed as old-fashioned and reactionary. We proudly use foreign aid in everything, from thinking, management, capital, methods of production, technology, etc. to even the standards and forms of consumption. This is not the road to progress and development. We shall forget our individuality and become virtual slaves once again. The positive content of “Swadeshi” should be used as the cornerstone Of reconstruction of our economy.

With the focus once again now on #Swadeshi & #Atmanirbharata, it is a good time to read what Pt. Deendayal Upadhyay wrote on this subject. Here is an excerpt from his  “Aspects of Economics”.

SWADESHI AND DECENTRALISATION

“SWADESHI” and “Decentralisation” are the two words which can briefly summarize the economic policy suitable for the present circumstances. Centralization and monopolization have been the order of the day for all these years, knowingly or unknowingly. The planners have become prisoners of a belief that only large-scale centralized industry is economic and hence without worrying about its ill-effects, or knowingly but helplessly they have continued in that direction. The same has been the case with “Swadeshi” The concept of “Swadeshi” is ridiculed as old-fashioned and reactionary. We proudly use foreign aid in everything, from thinking, management, capital, methods of production, technology, etc. to even the standards and forms of consumption. This is not the road to progress and development. We shall forget our individuality and become virtual slaves once again. The positive content of “Swadeshi” should be used as the cornerstone Of reconstruction of our economy.

DEPENDENCE ON WESTERN ECONOMICS

NOT only because of different ideals of life but also because of different conditions in terms of time and place the way of our economic development will have to be different from that of the West. But we are tied to Marshall and Marx. We believe that the economic principles they have discussed are eternal. Even those Who realise that they are dependent upon certain systems are not able to step out of their orbits. The economic prosperity of the West has created a blind belief in us about the Western system of production. Western economists have produced so much critical literature that we easily feel overwhelmed by it. We cannot rise above it. It is possible that this science of economics may have some principles that do not depend upon time, place or system and can prove useful to all, but very few have the capacity to assess this quality. Our education cannot create people with such a capacity. Our economists may be experts in Western economics, but they have not been able to make any solid contribution to it because the Indian economy can neither provide them the necessary thought nor the necessary field for experimentation.

NO RIGHT ETERNAL

NO fundamental rights, whether related to property or other things, are eternal. They are all dependent upon the interest of society. In fact these rights are given to the individual in order that he may perform his social duties. A soldier is given weapons because his duty is to protect society. If he does not do his duty he loses the right to bear weapons. Similarly the right to property is given to an individual so that he could do his duty by society. For this purpose it becomes necessary to define and modify these rights from time to time. No right to property is absolute of society.

RIGHT OF OWNERSHIP

THE right of ownership is actually the right to use a particular thing within definite limits and for a definite purpose. These rights keep changing with the times. Hence as a matter of principle we may not get entangled in the quarrel between the individual’s rights and the right of society. For us the State is not the only form of society. We believe that the individual, the family, the community, the State are all different forms in which society expresses and fulfils itself. The joint family is the practical unit in this country in which we seek to preserve the social sense in the individual, in which every individual has the right to earn, but the right of ownership vests in the family. Wealth is used for the benefit of the family. It is this Indian principle of Trusteeship that has been propounded by Gandhiji, Guruji and other thinkers.

OWNERSHIP RIGHT FOR WORKERS

IT is a matter of surprise that today a share-holder in joint stock companies, who has no other connection with the company except a share in its profit, should be able to exercise ownership rights while the worker who works in an industry, sets its machines into motion and depends upon it for his livelihood should experience a feeling of being a stranger to it. This feeling is not proper. It is therefore necessary that along with the share-holder the worker should be given ownership rights and a share in its management and profit.

RIGHT TO FOOD

THE slogan commonly heard now-a-days is “one must earn his bread”. Normally communists use this slogan, but even the capitalists are not fundamentally in disagreement with it. If there is any diflerence between them, it is only as regards who earns and how much. The capitalists consider capital and enterprise as important factors of production and if they take a major share of profit, it is because they think it is their due. On the other hand, communists believe only labour to be the main factor in production. Therefore they concede a major share of production to the labourers. Neither of these ideas is correct. Strictly speaking, our slogan should be that he who earns will feed and every person will have enough to eat. The right to food is a birthright. The ability to earn is a result of education and training. In a society even those who do not earn must have food. The children and the old, the diseased and the invalids, all must be cared for by society. Every society generally fulfils this responsibility. The social and cultural pro- guess of mankind lies in the readiness to fulfil this responsibility.

FOOD VERSUS FREEDOM

WHILE imports may help us tide over our present difficulties, the real solution to the problem lies in maximising agricultural production in the country. That we have not done sufficiently in this direction needs no saying. The present agreement is an eloquent testimony to the Government’s failure on this front. With the passage of time we have become increasingly dependent on foreign sources. We fear that due to availability of food in plenty at present the Government may become complacent in their efforts to raise production locally. The US Ambassador feels that America is following this policy only to let the struggling people of the democratic world realise that “there can be both freedom and food”. But what we want is our freedom and our food. That is possible only if we revive our old slogan of “Freedom from foreign food”. Dependence on foreign sources will impoverish and entangle us.

ECONOMIC DEMOCRACY

IF a vote for everyone is the touch-stone of political democracy, work for everyone is a measure of economic democracy. This right to work does not mean slave labour as in communist countries. Work should not only give a means of livelihood to a person but it should be of the choice of that person. If for doing that work the worker does not get a proper share in the national income, he would, be considered unemployed. From this point of view a minimum wage, a just system of distribution and some sort of social security are necessary.

  • Excerpts from Sri Deendayal Upadhyay on Aspects of Economics

 

Hinduness and Hinduism X-rayed

Hinduism, as it is termed, is not Hinduness (Hindutva). Hinduness is the identity of the land and the people whereas Hinduism is the spiritual belief-system of the individual. Hinduness is always collective whereas Hinduism is ultimately personal…’ Former Akhil Bharatiya Boudhik Pramukh of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, Shri Ranga Hari writes on the Hindutva Vs Hinduism dichotomy

Hindutva, a word that draws very much attention these days, can rightly be termed as Hinduness. Hinduism is a word that has come down to us since the advent of the British. Both these words are twins as it were, yet they distinctly differ from each other. Each one has its own different connotation and is conceptually different. Still, due to lack of understanding inherent or created, confusion at thought level does prevail. Here is a humble attempt to clear it.
Hinduness connotes the identity of a people residing in Hindoostan as it was known till the period of Clive and Warren Hastings. Since the collective life of the people in this part of the globe was millenniums old and the land stretching southwards was well-walled by The Himalayas in the north, an identity unique and abiding got evolved all along. Vedas, the first recorded thoughts of humankind moulded the life, vision and perception of the inhabitants. Their men of wisdom, Rishis as they were called, spelled out to them their revelations which were basically humanistic and universal. In due course, that became the legacy of the populace as a whole and passed on from generation to generation. That came down to them as their Dharma which in essence included the entire gamut of all the human pursuits, mundane as well as ultramundane. Resultantly that gave them a solid Value System beyond the limits of climes and times.
To cite a few of such values:-
  • Readiness to accept noble thoughts from any quarter.
  • Truth is one but termed differently by the different as per their inner light.
  • The pursuits of the wise are as infinite as the tracks of birds flying in the skies and fishes swimming in the seas.
  • The earth belongs to all whom it bears and rears.
  • The entire creation has within the self same energy though in varying degrees.
  • To visualise unity in multiplicity is true knowledge.
  • Man can make or mar himself as he alone is his final master.
All such dicta were called Mantras. Mark them they never warranted any special type of worship. There was nothing dogmatic about them.
It is this value system that resulted in the evolution of a distinct culture, civilisation and social life in Hindoostan. It was quite natural that it got manifested in all the endeavours of the people. When it reached the realities of the relationship between man and his maker it took the shape of religious belief. All these things put together gave to this huge chunk of humanity its own identity, its own Selfhood – National Persona. Verily that is termed as Hinduness. Actually, it is not a product of human effort. Rather it is an unconscious organic consummation. It operates more at the psychic level than physical. Subtly but surely it influences all the pursuits of the people of Hindoostan, be it philosophy, religion, literature, art, politics, economics, even sports. Directly connected with the ever flowing life of generations, it is never static. It can never be. It has to be ever blossoming and so ever renewing.
History stands testimony to the fact that Hinduness is a movement and a growing tradition truly reflecting the uninterrupted life of this nation. It is the raison-deter of Bharat. In short, Hinduness is the selfhood of Hindoostan evolved and developed through centuries. It is the vital force that keeps the nation going and doing. It belongs to all the children of soil without any discrimination. It enters one”s inner being as a legacy and not as a choice. It creates in every child born in this land a sense of belonging to the nation. In other words, an individual develops into a national by inheriting Hinduness. The singular becomes the collective.
Hinduism, on the other hand, is a part of Hinduness in the field of religious belief. The spiritual craving of man is also an innate quality. In that direction when Hinduness guides and goads Hinduism comes up. In fact, Vedas of Hindus do not advocate any fixed form of external worship. The king among Mantras, the Gayatri is a prayer to the life-giving Supreme Energy to develop the human intellect to a sublime stage of enlightenment. Here no particular deity is invoked. Anybody belonging to any religion, even an agnostic need have no objection to such a prayer. It should be notified that there are hundreds of such Mantras in the Vedas. But as years rolled on Brahmanas, the procedural manuals were composed and Hinduness applied to religious impulses gave rise to very many forms of beliefs, rituals, functions and festivals. Eventually, Hinduism, as we see today, got stratified.
When the western colonialists landed on the shores of Hindoostan it is this Hinduism that they saw. For them virtually it was a forest of creeds with no elements of religion according to their yardstick that identified and defined Semitic religions. It was almost impossible for them to name it. So prudently they pushed these incomprehensible faiths and creeds under one single umbrella ‘Hindu,’ the name of the people and the land, and straitjacketed it as ‘Hinduism,’ all the while maintaining that it was no true religion at all. In fact, none in India said he was a Hindu when questioned about his religion. He always replied he was a Vaishnava, Saiva, Sakteya or the like. Truly, Hinduism is a misnomer. If at all one is insistent about the word Hindu, he may call it Hindu Religions, ever plural as in the case of some constellations like Saptarshis. That would be more sound and true. To be scientifically precise it should be called ‘Dharmic tradition.’ Anyway, right or wrong, Hinduism has come to stay well anchored in European Dictionaries.
Hinduism, as it is termed, is not Hinduness. Hinduness is the identity of the land and the people whereas Hinduism is the spiritual belief-system of the individual. Hinduness is always collective whereas Hinduism is ultimately personal. Hinduness is a legacy, a tradition whereas Hinduism is a matter of choice or as of today a patrimony. The mould of Hinduness is nature, history and tradition; the mould of Hinduism is individual family and society. Hinduness has been always inclusive right from Vedic times. But to say so of Hinduism can only be partially true. In the sense that Hinduism accommodates all the newborn religions or modes of worships it is inclusive. But when we think of it entering its worship rooms, it is as exclusive as the Semitic faiths even though not that intolerant. To dilate, in the Vaishnava Sanctum no Saiva is welcome and in a Tantric ritual, no Vedantist is admitted. Each one of the Hindu religions fastidiously keeps up its purity to the exclusion of the rest. Yet they all religiously hold on to the eternal values embedded in Hinduness.
Any individual belonging to any nation has the right to choose his religion. So anyone can become a Hindu from any corner of the world by choosing Hinduism. But his Hinduism as time passes by will be influenced to a certain extent by the National Identity of the chooser. In that sense, American Hinduism or Indonesian Hinduism need not be cent per cent identical with Bharatheeya Hinduism. It shall develop its own special features in tune with its national identity. Similarly, Christianity and Islam that have entered India from the land of their origin are bound to be different to the extent influenced by Hinduness. In fact, it is already so. Islam in India has to a certain extent accepted worshipping symbols and monuments as seen in the dargah worship all over. In Kerala, Islam has regular religious festivals exactly on the lines of Hindu temples. They have their own special names like Urus and Chandanakkudam. Caparisoned elephants are an inevitable item of those functions. The mosque on the way to the famous Sabarimala pilgrimage distributes Bhasmam (sanctified ashes) as prasadam to the devotees. As far as Christianity is concerned, one is liable to mistake it for a new sect within Hinduism. The flag masts of the church, the music, the gallantry, even the theological vocabulary so closely resemble Hinduism. Both the Semitic religions are influenced by the Hindoostan’s Hinduness. Without any fear of contradiction, one can say Indian Christianity and Indian Islam have upon them the indelible impress of Hinduness. This is not to say that they have changed their fundamentals regarding their philosophy and theology.
In short, Hinduness and Hinduism are not mathematically identical with each other. At best, you may say they are twins. Exactly because of that, a casual observer gets confused but not a keen one. And a true seeker is not expected to be simply casual.
– Sri Ranga Hari 
(The writer is former Akhil Bharatiya Boudhik Pramukh of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh)
The article was published in Organiser in 2018

Jayostute – Victory to You

Bharat Mata Photo without quote

Jayostute (Victory to You) by Swatantrya Veer Vinayak Damodar Savarkar in the cellular jail of Andamans.

 

ज्योस्तु ते श्रीमहन्मंगले Iशिवास्पदे शुभदे

स्वतंत्रते भगवतिIत्वामहं यशोयुतां वंदे II धृII

Victory to you, O Auspicious One,

O Holy Abode, Eternal Delight!

O Goddess of Freedom, Victorious One, we salute you!

राष्ट्राचे चैतन्य मूर्त तूं नीतिसंपदांची

स्वतंत्रते भगवति I श्रीमती राज्ञी तू त्यांची

Epitome of our National Soul, Goddess of Freedom O,

Of Virtue and Prosperity supreme Queen you are, lo!

परवशतेच्या नभांत तूंची आकाशी होशी

स्वतंत्रते भगवती I चांदणी चमचम लखलखशी II

O Goddess of Freedom, you are a star shining

In this darkness of slavery, alone in the sky gleaming!

गालावरच्या कुसुमी किंवा कुसुमांच्या गाली

स्वतंत्रते भगवती I तूच जी विलसतसे लाली

तूं सूर्याचे तेज उदधिचे गांभीर्यहि तूंची

स्वतंत्रते भगवतीIअन्यथा ग्रहण नष्ट तेंची II

O Goddess of Freedom, you are the blush that prospers,

On flowers as soft as cheeks, on cheeks as soft as flowers!

You are the depth of the ocean, the radiance of the sun,

O Goddess of Freedom, without you their worth is none!

मोक्ष मुक्ति ही तुझीच रूपें तुलाच वेदांती

स्वतंत्रते भगवतीIयोगिजन परब्रह्म वदती

जे जे उत्तम उदात्त उन्नत महन्मधुर तेंतें

स्वतंत्रते भगवतीI सर्व तव सहचारी होते II

You are moksh-liberation and by the Yogis esteemed

Hailed you’re, O Goddess, as the Soul Supreme,

O Goddess of Freedom, all your companions are elite

Noble, magnificent, and oh so very sweet!

हे अधम रक्त रंजिते I सुजन-पुजिते ! श्रीस्वतंत्रते

तुजसाठिं मरण तें जनन

तुजविण जनन ते मरण

तुज सकल चराचर शरण

भरतभूमीला दृढालिंगना कधिं देशिल वरदे

स्वतंत्रते भगवतीIत्वामहं यशोयुतां वंदे II

Soaked in the villain’s blood—you are!

Worshipped by noble men—you are!

Life is to die for You,

Death is to live without You,

All creation surrenders unto you!

O Giver of Boons, clasp our motherland to your bosom, do!

O Goddess of Freedom, Victorious One, we salute you!

हिमालयाच्या हिमसौधाचा लोभ शंकराला

क्रिडा येथे करण्याचा कां तुला वीट आला?

होय आरसा अप्सरांनासरसे करण्याला

सुधाधवल जान्हवीस्त्रोत तो कां गे त्वां त्यजिला? II

E’en Shankar covets our mighty Himalayas of terraced snow,

Oh why does it not please you to sport here anymo’?

Her brilliant waters an Apsara’s mirror verily make

Why oh why, the bountiful Ganges you did forsake?

स्वतंत्रतेIह्या सुवर्णभूमीत कमती काय तुला?

कोहिनूरचे पुष्प रोज घे ताजें वेणीला

ही सकल-श्री-संयुता I आमची माताभारती असतां

कां तुवां ढकलुनी दिधली

पूर्वीची ममता सरली

परक्यांची दासी झाली

जीव तळमळे, कांतूं त्यजिले उत्तर ह्याचें दे

स्वतंत्रते भगवतीIत्वामहं यशोयुतां वंदे IIधृ II

O Freedom! What did you lack in this GoldenLand?

Each day find a fresh Kohinoor bloom for your strands!

Here she is the Bounteous One, our very own motherland,

So why, oh why did you push her away?

Why did your Motherly love of old wither away?

Over her strangers now hold sway!

Anguished is my soul!

Why, oh why, did you abandon her so, answer me, I pray!

O Goddess of Freedom, O Triumphant One,

We salute you!

*ये नव वर्ष हमे स्वीकार नहीं*

*–राष्ट्रकवि रामधारीसिंह दिनकर*

ये नव वर्ष हमे स्वीकार नहीं, है अपना ये त्यौहार नहीं।

है अपनी ये तो रीत नहीं, है अपना ये व्यवहार नहीं।।

धरा ठिठुरती है सर्दी से आकाश में कोहरा गहरा है।

बाग़ बाज़ारों की सरहद पर सर्द हवा का पहरा है।।

सूना है प्रकृति का आँगन, कुछ रंग नहीं, उमंग नहीं।

हर कोई है घर में दुबका हुआ, नव वर्ष का ये कोई ढंग नहीं।।

चंद मास अभी इंतज़ार करो, निज मन में तनिक विचार करो।

नये साल नया कुछ हो तो सही, क्यों नक़ल में सारी अक्ल बही।।

उल्लास मंद है जन -मन का, आयी है अभी बहार नहीं।

ये नव वर्ष हमे स्वीकार नहीं, है अपना ये त्यौहार नहीं।।

ये धुंध कुहासा छंटने दो, रातों का राज्य सिमटने दो।

प्रकृति का रूप निखरने दो, फागुन का रंग बिखरने दो।।

प्रकृति दुल्हन का रूप धार, जब स्नेह – सुधा बरसायेगी।

शस्य – श्यामला धरती माता, घर -घर खुशहाली लायेगी।।

तब चैत्र शुक्ल की प्रथम तिथि, नव वर्ष मनाया जायेगा।

आर्यावर्त की पुण्य भूमि पर, जय गान सुनाया जायेगा।।

युक्ति – प्रमाण से स्वयंसिद्ध, नव वर्ष हमारा हो प्रसिद्ध।

आर्यों की कीर्ति सदा -सदा, नव वर्ष चैत्र शुक्ल प्रतिपदा।।

अनमोल विरासत के धनिकों को, चाहिये कोई उधार नहीं।

ये नव वर्ष हमे स्वीकार नहीं, है अपना ये त्यौहार नहीं।।

है अपनी ये तो रीत नहीं, है अपना ये त्यौहार नहीं।।

-राष्ट्रकवि रामधारीसिंह दिनकर