Category Archives: Hindutva

Committed to the cause of Ram Mandir at Ayodhya

Shri Kalyan Singh as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh played a crucial role in the Ram Janmbhoomi movement. He always takes pride in the fact that the disputed structure was demolished during his tenure. Excerpts from an interview Shri Singh gave to Organiser on July 14, 1991.

Q. How do you plan to deal with the Ram Janmbhoomi issue ?

I am committed to allow the construction of the temple at Ayodhya. I declared this at Ayodhya on July 13, in the presence of a number of people present there, including some senior leaders of BJP.

I have also appealed to Muslim leaders of the State to support the Government for this cause. Their response is positive. I am confident ; a way will be found, keeping in view the sentiments of all concerned.

Q.  How can you succeed in your effort where the previous Governments have failed?

The previous Governments were not sincere in fact, they did not want the construction of Ram Temple. Their approach was negative. They were creating all sorts of hurdles in the way. My Governments will clear the way for VHP to construct the temple.

Q. Do you intend to acquire the land for this purpose ?

All steps necessary for this purpose will be taken. I have already talked to senior BJP leaders in this regard. I have also appealed to Muslim leaders of State to support the Government for this cause. Their response is positive. I am confident; a way will be found, keeping in view the sentiments of all concerned.

Q. Do you propose to take away action against guilty officers in respect of atrocities against Karsevaks ?

The inquiry commission set up by the previous Government was only an eyewash. A new commission will be set up to enquire into the questions as to what led to the tragic events of October 30 and november 2. Suitable actions will be taken against the quilty officers who exceed their jurisdiction in committing atrocities on the innocent people. The commission will also enquire into the riots which broke out in UP after these events.

Don’t Use Savarkar In Your Agenda To Vilify Gau-Rakshaks; He Was An Advocate Of Cow Protection

By Arihant Pawariya for Swarajya

  • The narrative the media are trying to build — that Savarkar was somehow against cow protection itself and would’ve admonished gau-rakshaks — will fall flat because nothing can be farther from the truth. He was a vocal advocate of gau-raksha. ___________________________________________________________________________________________

Last month witnessed the release of two back-to-back biographies of Savarkar by Vikram Sampath and Vaibhav Purandare.

The fact that it took almost half a century for an English biography of a nationalistic icon to come out speaks volumes about our national apathy towards revolutionary anti-colonial heroes.

Perhaps it is a manifestation of the changing times that we are finally ready to stop demonising them and regurgitating the colonial propaganda, and stop insulting our martyrs by calling them misguided patriots or terrorists.

Both the works of Sampath and Purandare provide ample ammunition in helping understand the Savarkar phenomenon.

There is a lot to be learnt and celebrated about him — the difficult but inspiring childhood of a precocious boy, his role in the revolutionary movement for independence, him enduring inhuman incarceration in the Andamans with great fortitude, his Himalayan contribution to Indian political philosophy, his works as a social reformer and what not.

However, the usual suspects in the media, the intellectual heirs of those who have ignored or demonised Savarkar for decades, are not interested in highlighting any of these aspects.

Most of them are instead publishing excerpts from the books where Savarkar makes a case to not treat the bovine as divine. In the interviews with authors, leading questions about his views on cow worship are asked so that Savarkar can be used to run down present day gau-rakshaks.

The narrative they are trying to build — that Savarkar was somehow against cow protection itself and would’ve admonished gau-rakshaks — will fall flat because nothing can be farther from the truth. He was a vocal advocate of gau-raksha.

In fact, Savarkar’s first brush with communal riots as a 11-year old boy in his hometown Bhagur, was also precipitated by cow-related violence among other things. As Sampath writes, ‘these experiences taught him how poorly organized and disunited the Hindu community was’ and ‘this made Hindus doubly vulnerable to attacks.’

Yes, Savarkar didn’t want Hindu society to treat the cow as a divine creature. “The cow eats at one end and expels urine and dung at the other end. When it is tired it lies down in its own filth. Then it uses its tail (which we call beautiful) to spread this filth all over its body. How can a creature which does not understand cleanliness be considered divine?,” he reasoned.

“Why are cow’s urine and dung purifying while even the shadow of a man like Ambedkar is defiling?” Savarkar raised a pertinent question to Hindu society.

When it came to cows, his approach was utilitarian. He believed the cow was meant for the man and not the other way around, hence, it must be looked after well to maximise her usefulness. After all, the Hindus treated the cow as holy only because she was so useful to them.

Today, some vested interests are quoting aforementioned arguments of Savarkar to run down gau-rakshaks but his intention was exactly the opposite. “I criticized the false notions involved in cow worship with the aim of removing the chaff and preserving the essence so that cow protection may be better achieved,” he said.

Clearly he was making a case that worshiping the cow was of no use if it is prioritized over its protection. He said,

A worshipful attitude is necessary for protection. But it is improper to forget the duty of cow protection and indulging only in worship. The word ‘only’ used here is important. First protect the cow and then worship it if you so desire.

This is a far cry from what the trigger-happy Hindutva-baiters want us to believe by quoting Savarkar out of context, exactly the same modus operandi they have employed in painting him as a British stooge based on the mercy petitions written by him during his incarceration in the Andamans.

In any case, Savarkar’s appeal to Hindus to not consider the bovine as divine was in no way a nod for non-Hindus to go ahead with killing cows as if it was their religious duty.

As Purandare writes, “Savarkar wrote that Hindus might be naive but they weren’t cruel” unlike those who kill the cow as part of their “dharma”’ and thus had “no right to ridicule cow worshippers for their beliefs”.

Savarkar charged cow killers with possessing an ‘asuric instinct’ and urged all non-Hindus to “discard their religious cow hatred and consider cow protection done for economic reasons to be their duty.”

Some too-clever-by-half agenda-peddlers have even said that Savarkar advocated eating beef, conveniently throwing the context again in the dustbin. He was talking of extreme situations.

If a fortified city of the Hindu nation was under siege and was running out of rations, then rather than dying of starvation and surrendering, he believes it would be better to slaughter cows, use their flesh as food, to fight and defeat the enemy.

According to Savarkar, sacrificing the cow was acceptable in national interest. He cited examples of Indians kings who would capitulate in front of foreign invaders whenever the latter threatened to harm the cows, temples or Brahmins.

“Foolishness led to the sacrifice of the nation for the sake of a few cows and Brahmins and temples,” he said.

Savarkar was forthright and unwavering in his views. It will serve us all well if we attempt to understand why he said the things that are being gleefully misused by the media. Quoting him without context is a disservice to his memory and will not work in this day of social media awareness.

Arihant Pawariya is Senior Editor, Swarajya.

Veer Savarkar: The unsung Hero of our Freedom struggle

By: Shambu Nashipudi

The 30th President of America Calvin Coolidge once said, “A nation that forgets its heroes will itself soon be forgotten.” and our nation is guilty of this crime. Indian History is perhaps more about the missing pages about Nationalist Heroes, whose lives should have been a must read for all Indian. Yes, bulk of the blame lies with Marxist propagandist, sorry historians, but can we completely absolve ourselves for remaining inert?

Sri Aurobindo Ghosh, Subhash Chandra Bose and Veer Savarkar were the few prominent ones whom the British dreaded for their revolutionary thoughts and armed struggle. Unfortunately, the same narrative continued even after Independence under the dispensation of Nehru and ecosystem of Left-Liberals.

Albeit propaganda has its own limitations. Savarkar’s thoughts and ideas have again started capturing imagination of thinking class but in popular memory and discourse, Savarkar still remains either maligned or ignored. A new generation of scholars, writers are now attempting a course-correction in their own humble ways.

The story of Savarkar and his nationalism goes back to his childhood days, when the hanging of Chapekar brothers by British govt in 1890’s traumatized the young Savarkar, who would vow before Goddess Durga that he would strive to ensure Bharat is independent from the clutches of foreign occupation.

The seeds of patriotism sown in childhood days were blossoming into a plant that would grow up into a giant banyan tree. Savarkar traveled to England to study Law on a scholarship and his revolutionary activities started to take shape. He was arrested in London in 1910 on charges of inciting revolt and violence against the British and was deported back to India. What followed was 50 years of imprisonment and transportation for Life to the dreaded Cellular jail in Andaman & Nicobar Islands.

Apart from being a true Nationalist, Savarkar was a historian par excellence. In 1908, at the young age of 26, Savarkar wrote the magnum opus ‘The First War of Independence – 1857’. The book remains the most detailed account of the uprising of Indians against the ruthless British rulers. He successfully established the fact that the uprising was a ‘War of Independence’ and not a mere ‘Sepoy Mutiny’ as recorded by the British historains. 

Savarkar wrote “The history of the tremendous Revolution that was enacted in the year 1857 has never been written in this scientific spirit by an author, Indian or foreign.” The book became the inspiration for Indian revolutionaries.

‘My Transportation for Life’ by Savarkar was published in the weekly “Kesari” of the venerated Late Lokmanya Tilak in a series during 1925-26. Savarkar writes about Hindu Muslim relationship in his book Hindu Pad Padshahi, that while the historic enmity between Islamist aggression and Hindu resistance should not be projected into current normal Hindu-Muslim relations but the lessons from history, however, should not be forgotten.

Savarkar was also emphatic and critical about the existing fault lines in Hindu society. He was a fierce rationalist and rejected the birth based varna system. He worked to build places of worship for people from all sections of society.  As a Social reformer, he worked to eradicate many issues ailing the Hindu society like accountability, cast based divisions among Hindus, and proselytization of Hindus to Islam. The fact that there were no ways for Hindu brethren to return back to Dharmic fold agitated him immensely.

Savarkar gave the country the political philosophy of Hindutva and coinage of the term ‘Hindutva’ in his book ‘Hindutva: Who Is a Hindu?’ (1923). He said those who regard this land of Bharat, spread between the river Sindhu in the north and the ocean Sindhu Sagar, Indian Ocean in the south, as their Pitrubhumi (fatherland) and Punyabhumi (holy land) are Hindus.

In the age of political correctness, the fact remains that it was Savarkar who gave Hindutva a definitive shape and without a shred if doubt he remains the philosophical and intellectual fountainhead of Hindu political renaissance.

In the later years Savarkar wrote ‘Six Glorious Epochs of Indian History’ to counter the then accepted view that India’s history was a saga of continuous slavery and defeats by external powers and regimes inimical to culture of the land.

The name ‘Savarkar’ is synonymous with courage, bravery, might and patriotism. True to his name, he was an inspiration to many revolutionaries of Indian’s freedom struggle, starting from Bhagat Singh, RSS founder Dr Hedgewar, Subhash Chandra Bose, among others.

In spite of being a self-proclaimed atheist, Savarkar was a true karma yogi who followed the principles of the Gita in his life.

Britishers confined Savarkar’s spirit to the cells of Cellular jail for over a decade but there is no bigger ignominy to patriots like Savarkar when the nation forgets or ignores the sacrifices of people who laid down their lives for the nation’s greater good.

Veer Savarkar led the country through troubled times. He unapologetically united the Hindus under one flag and gave them an ideology for ages to come. Savarkar said, for a nation to survive it has to reclaim its past. “The nation that has no consciousness of its past has no future.”

The only fitting tribute for Savarkar in the 21st century would be realisation of the nation about the reality of Bharat being a Hindu Rashtra and the emphatic declaration of the same.

Sri Rama Raksha Stotram श्री राम रक्षा स्तोत्रम्

śrīrāma rakṣāstōtraṃ

ॐ अस्य श्री रामरक्षा स्तोत्रमन्त्रस्य
बुधकौशिक ऋषिः
श्री सीताराम चन्द्रोदेवता
अनुष्टुप् छन्दः
सीता शक्तिः
श्रीमद् हनुमान् कीलकम्
श्रीरामचन्द्र प्रीत्यर्थे रामरक्षा स्तोत्रजपे विनियोगः ॥

ध्यायेदाजानुबाहुं धृतशर धनुषं बद्ध पद्मासनस्थं
पीतं वासोवसानं नवकमल दलस्पर्थि नेत्रं प्रसन्नम् ।
वामाङ्कारूढ सीतामुख कमलमिलल्लोचनं नीरदाभं
नानालङ्कार दीप्तं दधतमुरु जटामण्डलं रामचन्द्रम् ॥

चरितं रघुनाथस्य शतकोटि प्रविस्तरम् ।
एकैकमक्षरं पुंसां महापातक नाशनम् ॥ 1 ॥

ध्यात्वा नीलोत्पल श्यामं रामं राजीवलोचनम् ।
जानकी लक्ष्मणोपेतं जटामुकुट मण्डितम् ॥ 2 ॥

सासितूण धनुर्बाण पाणिं नक्तं चरान्तकम् ।
स्वलीलया जगत्त्रातु माविर्भूतमजं विभुम् ॥ 3 ॥

रामरक्षां पठेत्प्राज्ञः पापघ्नीं सर्वकामदाम् ।
शिरो मे राघवः पातु फालं दशरथात्मजः ॥ 4 ॥

कौसल्येयो दृशौपातु विश्वामित्रप्रियः शृती ।
घ्राणं पातु मखत्राता मुखं सौमित्रिवत्सलः ॥ 5 ॥

जिह्वां विद्यानिधिः पातु कण्ठं भरतवन्दितः ।
स्कन्धौ दिव्यायुधः पातु भुजौ भग्नेशकार्मुकः ॥ 6 ॥

करौ सीतापतिः पातु हृदयं जामदग्न्यजित् ।
मध्यं पातु खरध्वंसी नाभिं जाम्बवदाश्रयः ॥ 7 ॥

सुग्रीवेशः कटिं पातु सक्थिनी हनुमत्-प्रभुः ।
ऊरू रघूत्तमः पातु रक्षःकुल विनाशकृत् ॥ 8 ॥

जानुनी सेतुकृत्-पातु जङ्घे दशमुखान्तकः ।
पादौ विभीषणश्रीदः पातु रामोऽखिलं वपुः ॥ 9 ॥

एतां रामबलोपेतां रक्षां यः सुकृती पठेत् ।
स चिरायुः सुखी पुत्री विजयी विनयी भवेत् ॥ 10 ॥

पाताल-भूतल-व्योम-चारिण-श्चद्म-चारिणः ।
न द्रष्टुमपि शक्तास्ते रक्षितं रामनामभिः ॥ 11 ॥

रामेति रामभद्रेति रामचन्द्रेति वा स्मरन् ।
नरो न लिप्यते पापैर्भुक्तिं मुक्तिं च विन्दति ॥ 12 ॥

जगज्जैत्रैक मन्त्रेण रामनाम्नाभि रक्षितम् ।
यः कण्ठे धारयेत्तस्य करस्थाः सर्वसिद्धयः ॥ 13 ॥

वज्रपञ्जर नामेदं यो रामकवचं स्मरेत् ।
अव्याहताज्ञः सर्वत्र लभते जयमङ्गलम् ॥ 14 ॥

आदिष्टवान्-यथा स्वप्ने रामरक्षामिमां हरः ।
तथा लिखितवान्-प्रातः प्रबुद्धौ बुधकौशिकः ॥ 15 ॥

आरामः कल्पवृक्षाणां विरामः सकलापदाम् ।
अभिराम-स्त्रिलोकानां रामः श्रीमान् स नः प्रभुः ॥ 16 ॥

तरुणौ रूपसम्पन्नौ सुकुमारौ महाबलौ ।
पुण्डरीक विशालाक्षौ चीरकृष्णाजिनाम्बरौ ॥ 17 ॥

फलमूलाशिनौ दान्तौ तापसौ ब्रह्मचारिणौ ।
पुत्रौ दशरथस्यैतौ भ्रातरौ रामलक्ष्मणौ ॥ 18 ॥

शरण्यौ सर्वसत्त्वानां श्रेष्ठौ सर्वधनुष्मताम् ।
रक्षःकुल निहन्तारौ त्रायेतां नो रघूत्तमौ ॥ 19 ॥

आत्त सज्य धनुषा विषुस्पृशा वक्षयाशुग निषङ्ग सङ्गिनौ ।
रक्षणाय मम रामलक्षणावग्रतः पथि सदैव गच्छतां ॥ 20 ॥

सन्नद्धः कवची खड्गी चापबाणधरो युवा ।
गच्छन् मनोरथान्नश्च (मनोरथोऽस्माकं) रामः पातु स लक्ष्मणः ॥ 21 ॥

रामो दाशरथि श्शूरो लक्ष्मणानुचरो बली ।
काकुत्सः पुरुषः पूर्णः कौसल्येयो रघूत्तमः ॥ 22 ॥

वेदान्तवेद्यो यज्ञेशः पुराण पुरुषोत्तमः ।
जानकीवल्लभः श्रीमानप्रमेय पराक्रमः ॥ 23 ॥

इत्येतानि जपेन्नित्यं मद्भक्तः श्रद्धयान्वितः ।
अश्वमेधाधिकं पुण्यं सम्प्राप्नोति न संशयः ॥ 24 ॥

रामं दूर्वादल श्यामं पद्माक्षं पीतवाससम् ।
स्तुवन्ति नाभि-र्दिव्यै-र्नते संसारिणो नराः ॥ 25 ॥

रामं लक्ष्मण पूर्वजं रघुवरं सीतापतिं सुन्दरम्
काकुत्स्थं करुणार्णवं गुणनिधिं विप्रप्रियं धार्मिकम् ।
राजेन्द्रं सत्यसन्धं दशरथतनयं श्यामलं शान्तमूर्तिम्
वन्दे लोकाभिरामं रघुकुल तिलकं राघवं रावणारिम् ॥ 26 ॥

रामाय रामभद्राय रामचन्द्राय वेधसे ।
रघुनाथाय नाथाय सीतायाः पतये नमः ॥ 27 ॥

श्रीराम राम रघुनन्दन राम राम
श्रीराम राम भरताग्रज राम राम ।
श्रीराम राम रणकर्कश राम राम
श्रीराम राम शरणं भव राम राम ॥ 28 ॥

श्रीराम चन्द्र चरणौ मनसा स्मरामि
श्रीराम चन्द्र चरणौ वचसा गृह्णामि ।
श्रीराम चन्द्र चरणौ शिरसा नमामि
श्रीराम चन्द्र चरणौ शरणं प्रपद्ये ॥ 29 ॥

माता रामो मत्-पिता रामचन्द्रः
स्वामी रामो मत्-सखा रामचन्द्रः ।
सर्वस्वं मे रामचन्द्रो दयालुः
नान्यं जाने नैव न जाने ॥ 30 ॥

दक्षिणे लक्ष्मणो यस्य वामे च (तु) जनकात्मजा ।
पुरतो मारुतिर्यस्य तं वन्दे रघुनन्दनम् ॥ 31 ॥

लोकाभिरामं रणरङ्गधीरं
राजीवनेत्रं रघुवंशनाथम् ।
कारुण्यरूपं करुणाकरं तं
श्रीरामचन्द्रं शरण्यं प्रपद्ये ॥ 32 ॥

मनोजवं मारुत तुल्य वेगं
जितेन्द्रियं बुद्धिमतां वरिष्टम् ।
वातात्मजं वानरयूथ मुख्यं
श्रीरामदूतं शरणं प्रपद्ये ॥ 33 ॥

कूजन्तं रामरामेति मधुरं मधुराक्षरम् ।
आरुह्यकविता शाखां वन्दे वाल्मीकि कोकिलम् ॥ 34 ॥

आपदामपहर्तारं दातारं सर्वसम्पदाम् ।
लोकाभिरामं श्रीरामं भूयोभूयो नमाम्यहं ॥ 35 ॥

भर्जनं भवबीजानामर्जनं सुखसम्पदाम् ।
तर्जनं यमदूतानां राम रामेति गर्जनम् ॥ 36 ॥

रामो राजमणिः सदा विजयते रामं रमेशं भजे
रामेणाभिहता निशाचरचमू रामाय तस्मै नमः ।
रामान्नास्ति परायणं परतरं रामस्य दासोस्म्यहं
रामे चित्तलयः सदा भवतु मे भो राम मामुद्धर ॥ 37 ॥

श्रीराम राम रामेति रमे रामे मनोरमे ।
सहस्रनाम तत्तुल्यं राम नाम वरानने ॥ 38 ॥

इति श्रीबुधकौशिकमुनि विरचितं श्रीराम रक्षास्तोत्रं सम्पूर्णं ।

श्रीराम जयराम जयजयराम ।

ōṃ asya śrī rāmarakṣā stōtramantrasya
budhakauśika ṛṣiḥ
śrī sītārāma chandrōdēvatā
anuṣṭup Chandaḥ
sītā śaktiḥ
śrīmad hanumān kīlakam
śrīrāmacandra prītyarthē rāmarakṣā stōtrajapē viniyōgaḥ ॥

dhyāyēdājānubāhuṃ dhṛtaśara dhanuṣaṃ baddha padmāsanasthaṃ
pītaṃ vāsōvasānaṃ navakamala daḻasparthi nētraṃ prasannam ।
vāmāṅkārūḍha sītāmukha kamalamilallōchanaṃ nīradābhaṃ
nānālaṅkāra dīptaṃ dadhatamuru jaṭāmaṇḍalaṃ rāmachandram ॥

charitaṃ raghunāthasya śatakōṭi pravistaram ।
ēkaikamakṣaraṃ puṃsāṃ mahāpātaka nāśanam ॥ 1 ॥

dhyātvā nīlōtpala śyāmaṃ rāmaṃ rājīvalōchanam ।
jānakī lakṣmaṇōpētaṃ jaṭāmukuṭa maṇḍitam ॥ 2 ॥

sāsitūṇa dhanurbāṇa pāṇiṃ naktaṃ charāntakam ।
svalīlayā jagattrātu māvirbhūtamajaṃ vibhum ॥ 3 ॥

rāmarakṣāṃ paṭhētprājñaḥ pāpaghnīṃ sarvakāmadām ।
śirō mē rāghavaḥ pātu phālaṃ daśarathātmajaḥ ॥ 4 ॥

kausalyēyō dṛśaupātu viśvāmitrapriyaḥ śṛtī ।
ghrāṇaṃ pātu makhatrātā mukhaṃ saumitrivatsalaḥ ॥ 5 ॥

jihvāṃ vidyānidhiḥ pātu kaṇṭhaṃ bharatavanditaḥ ।
skandhau divyāyudhaḥ pātu bhujau bhagnēśakārmukaḥ ॥ 6 ॥

karau sītāpatiḥ pātu hṛdayaṃ jāmadagnyajit ।
madhyaṃ pātu kharadhvaṃsī nābhiṃ jāmbavadāśrayaḥ ॥ 7 ॥

sugrīvēśaḥ kaṭiṃ pātu sakthinī hanumat-prabhuḥ ।
ūrū raghūttamaḥ pātu rakṣaḥkula vināśakṛt ॥ 8 ॥

jānunī sētukṛt-pātu jaṅghē daśamukhāntakaḥ ।
pādau vibhīṣaṇaśrīdaḥ pātu rāmōkhilaṃ vapuḥ ॥ 9 ॥

ētāṃ rāmabalōpētāṃ rakṣāṃ yaḥ sukṛtī paṭhēt ।
sa chirāyuḥ sukhī putrī vijayī vinayī bhavēt ॥ 10 ॥

pātāḻa-bhūtala-vyōma-chāriṇa-śchadma-chāriṇaḥ ।
na draṣṭumapi śaktāstē rakṣitaṃ rāmanāmabhiḥ ॥ 11 ॥

rāmēti rāmabhadrēti rāmachandrēti vā smaran ।
narō na lipyatē pāpairbhuktiṃ muktiṃ cha vindati ॥ 12 ॥

jagajjaitraika mantrēṇa rāmanāmnābhi rakṣitam ।
yaḥ kaṇṭhē dhārayēttasya karasthāḥ sarvasiddhayaḥ ॥ 13 ॥

vajrapañjara nāmēdaṃ yō rāmakavachaṃ smarēt ।
avyāhatājñaḥ sarvatra labhatē jayamaṅgaḻam ॥ 14 ॥

ādiṣṭavān-yathā svapnē rāmarakṣāmimāṃ haraḥ ।
tathā likhitavān-prātaḥ prabuddhau budhakauśikaḥ ॥ 15 ॥

ārāmaḥ kalpavṛkṣāṇāṃ virāmaḥ sakalāpadām ।
abhirāma-strilōkānāṃ rāmaḥ śrīmān sa naḥ prabhuḥ ॥ 16 ॥

taruṇau rūpasampannau sukumārau mahābalau ।
puṇḍarīka viśālākṣau chīrakṛṣṇājināmbarau ॥ 17 ॥

phalamūlāśinau dāntau tāpasau brahmachāriṇau ।
putrau daśarathasyaitau bhrātarau rāmalakṣmaṇau ॥ 18 ॥

śaraṇyau sarvasattvānāṃ śrēṣṭhau sarvadhanuṣmatām ।
rakṣaḥkula nihantārau trāyētāṃ nō raghūttamau ॥ 19 ॥

ātta sajya dhanuṣā viṣuspṛśā vakṣayāśuga niṣaṅga saṅginau ।
rakṣaṇāya mama rāmalakṣaṇāvagrataḥ pathi sadaiva gacChatāṃ ॥ 20 ॥

sannaddhaḥ kavachī khaḍgī chāpabāṇadharō yuvā ।
gacChan manōrathānnaścha (manōrathōsmākaṃ) rāmaḥ pātu sa lakṣmaṇaḥ ॥ 21 ॥

rāmō dāśarathi śśūrō lakṣmaṇānucharō balī ।
kākutsaḥ puruṣaḥ pūrṇaḥ kausalyēyō raghūttamaḥ ॥ 22 ॥

vēdāntavēdyō yajñēśaḥ purāṇa puruṣōttamaḥ ।
jānakīvallabhaḥ śrīmānapramēya parākramaḥ ॥ 23 ॥

ityētāni japēnnityaṃ madbhaktaḥ śraddhayānvitaḥ ।
aśvamēdhādhikaṃ puṇyaṃ samprāpnōti na saṃśayaḥ ॥ 24 ॥

rāmaṃ dūrvādaḻa śyāmaṃ padmākṣaṃ pītavāsasam ।
stuvanti nābhi-rdivyai-rnatē saṃsāriṇō narāḥ ॥ 25 ॥

rāmaṃ lakṣmaṇa pūrvajaṃ raghuvaraṃ sītāpatiṃ sundaram
kākutsthaṃ karuṇārṇavaṃ guṇanidhiṃ viprapriyaṃ dhārmikam ।
rājēndraṃ satyasandhaṃ daśarathatanayaṃ śyāmalaṃ śāntamūrtim
vandē lōkābhirāmaṃ raghukula tilakaṃ rāghavaṃ rāvaṇārim ॥ 26 ॥

rāmāya rāmabhadrāya rāmachandrāya vēdhasē ।
raghunāthāya nāthāya sītāyāḥ patayē namaḥ ॥ 27 ॥

śrīrāma rāma raghunandana rāma rāma
śrīrāma rāma bharatāgraja rāma rāma ।
śrīrāma rāma raṇakarkaśa rāma rāma
śrīrāma rāma śaraṇaṃ bhava rāma rāma ॥ 28 ॥

śrīrāma chandra charaṇau manasā smarāmi
śrīrāma chandra charaṇau vachasā gṛhṇāmi ।
śrīrāma chandra charaṇau śirasā namāmi
śrīrāma chandra charaṇau śaraṇaṃ prapadyē ॥ 29 ॥

mātā rāmō mat-pitā rāmachandraḥ
svāmī rāmō mat-sakhā rāmachandraḥ ।
sarvasvaṃ mē rāmachandrō dayāḻuḥ
nānyaṃ jānē naiva na jānē ॥ 30 ॥

dakṣiṇē lakṣmaṇō yasya vāmē cha (tu) janakātmajā ।
puratō mārutiryasya taṃ vandē raghunandanam ॥ 31 ॥

lōkābhirāmaṃ raṇaraṅgadhīraṃ
rājīvanētraṃ raghuvaṃśanātham ।
kāruṇyarūpaṃ karuṇākaraṃ taṃ
śrīrāmachandraṃ śaraṇyaṃ prapadyē ॥ 32 ॥

manōjavaṃ māruta tulya vēgaṃ
jitēndriyaṃ buddhimatāṃ variṣṭam ।
vātātmajaṃ vānarayūtha mukhyaṃ
śrīrāmadūtaṃ śaraṇaṃ prapadyē ॥ 33 ॥

kūjantaṃ rāmarāmēti madhuraṃ madhurākṣaram ।
āruhyakavitā śākhāṃ vandē vālmīki kōkilam ॥ 34 ॥

āpadāmapahartāraṃ dātāraṃ sarvasampadām ।
lōkābhirāmaṃ śrīrāmaṃ bhūyōbhūyō namāmyahaṃ ॥ 35 ॥

bharjanaṃ bhavabījānāmarjanaṃ sukhasampadām ।
tarjanaṃ yamadūtānāṃ rāma rāmēti garjanam ॥ 36 ॥

rāmō rājamaṇiḥ sadā vijayatē rāmaṃ ramēśaṃ bhajē
rāmēṇābhihatā niśācharachamū rāmāya tasmai namaḥ ।
rāmānnāsti parāyaṇaṃ parataraṃ rāmasya dāsōsmyahaṃ
rāmē chittalayaḥ sadā bhavatu mē bhō rāma māmuddhara ॥ 37 ॥

śrīrāma rāma rāmēti ramē rāmē manōramē ।
sahasranāma tattulyaṃ rāma nāma varānanē ॥ 38 ॥

iti śrībudhakauśikamuni virachitaṃ śrīrāma rakṣāstōtraṃ sampūrṇaṃ ।

śrīrāma jayarāma jayajayarāma ।

Sanatana dharma: Concept of Trimata

– By Sriramakrishna Turaga

Can you explain me in simple language on the concept of dvaita, visishtadvia and adviata? This is my friends question. I believe many people have this question in their mind.

There are many religions within the fold of sanatana dharma. The more popular of these are the three religions of Dvaita, Advaita and Vishishtadvaita.

Dvaitam: Dvaita sindhanta is initiated by Shri Madhvacharya and hence it is also known as Madhva matam. (13th century)

Visishtadvaitam: Vishishtadvaitam was founded by Sri Ramanujacharya. (11th century)

Advaitam: Advaita sindhanta originates from teachings of Shri Shankaracharya (8th century)

Let us try to briefly understand each of these concepts.

Dvaita sidhanta believes that both the soul and the paramatman are separate. Everything visible to the eye in creation is dependent on the invisible Paramatman Vasudeva, who is the originator of this creation.Shri Madhvacharya proposed “स्वतन्त्र्यमस्व्यंच द्ववववधम् तत्वममष्यमि” meaning Swatantram and Asvatrantram are two tatvas of this creation.

According to this, the world we see is real and so is the God who created it. They are two separate things. Almighty God is Swatantra (free of all bindings), the embodiment of Satchidananda, Sarvagnya (omniscient), sarvashaktishali (omnipotent) and sarvavyapi (omnipresent). He created the world out of joy with his leela.

While God is Swatantra, the jeevatma or soul created by him is not, but, lost is the leela of the paramatman, the Jeevatma is immersed in the notion that he is free. When the Jeevatma realizes that he is not independent and performs his Karma in complete submission to paramatman, such karma becomes nishkama karma. The fruit of such karma is not attributed to the jeevatma. Moksha can only be attained by the devotion of the jeevatma to the paramatma after attaining this self-realization.

Sri Ramanujacharya in this Vedanta philosophy proposed that the jeevatma, prakruti (nature) and the paramatman are the three truths. The Paramatma (Srimannarayana) exists in conjunction with the jeevatma called ‘Chit’ and the prakruti called ‘Achit’. Jeevatam suffers the bhavabhandam (trap of materialistic world) due to its ignorance but by the grace of a sadhguru and God, the jeevatma can get closer to God and attain moksha.

In Advaita sidhanta, Shri Shankara Bhagavatpada proposes the concept of “ब्रह्म सत्यम् जगन्न्त्रमथ्य”. As the name suggests, that which is not Dvaita is Advaita. Sri Shankaracharya suggests that there is only one padartha (substance) in this jagat and that is the Bhrahma and the rest of the world is a myth. Moksha is when we can come out of that myth and know the Brahma padartha.

The question that arises after briefly reading about concepts of these three sidhantas is whether the Gurus rejected the teachings of the others when they proposed their respective religions? Did they not at the time know of each other’s sidhantas?

It would be wrong to say that the Gurus have rejected each other’s teachings. This is clear when we examine the respective teachings in light of the chronological timelines and prevailing situations when each of these sidhantams was conceptualised.

In 8th Century the society was mature where Vaidik knowledge was more prevalent. Hence Sri Shankaracharya introduced the direct concept of Advaita. By 11th Century the society was riddled with rigidity and not capable of appreciating high concepts and Sri Ramanujacharya introduced Visishtadvaitam. He explained that the paramatma residing in all of us and nature is same padharta. By 13th Century the society has become even more rigid and ignorant. That is when Sri Madhvacharya conceptualized the Dvaita Sidhanta to lead the society on the path of Dharma. He simplified bhakti by telling people to walk on the path of nishkama karma to reach paramatma which is separate from jeevatma. In other words, all the concepts were introduced as per the prevalent situation in the society.

The fundamental principle of the sanatana dharma are “एकं सत् ववप्राः बहुदर वदन्न्त्रत ” [meaning The truth is the same but Viprah (sages) define it in different ways or call it by different names] and “आनो भद्राः क्रतवो यन्त्रतु ववश्वताः” [meaning Let the knowledge surround us from all directions].

Sri Shankaracharya, Sri Ramanujacharya and Sri Madhvacharya were the virtuous gurus whose purpose was to guide the society on the path of dharma and they imparted teachings based on society’s maturity and ability to understand and implement. At the outset, their teaching may look different but, there is no change in their practical effect. In other words, their teaching emphasize on how one should follow the dharma marga from the time one wakes up in the morning till he falls asleep at night. The devotee may choose any of the paths laid out but once the practice matures all these paths lead to moksha.

Only a Sadguru can lead us to the path of bhakti and not the person who only claims to be a Guru. As a poet once said, if you surrender and become a disciple showing desire to learn, your yearning will show you path to knowledge and lead you to the Guru who can guide you. Swami Vivekananda’s yearning for knowledge lead him to his Guru Ramakrishna Paramahamsa.

When a person realizes that he is different from his Guru and he needs to obtain knowledge from his Guru, he is in the state of Dwaita. That is to say he realizes his yearning to obtain knowledge. (ज्ञातुं)

Once a person realizes his need for knowledge and identifies the Guru who can impart the knowledge to him, he is in state of Vishishtadwaitam. (द्ष्टुम्) Knowledge cannot be attained by realizing the need for it or by identifying the Guru. The person must put to practice the teachings of the Guru, i.e. he must become the Guru. This is the stage of Advaita where there is no difference between the disciple and the Guru (प्रवेष्टुम् ).

For Moksha also we should first realise the lack of bhakti (dwaita) and search for a Guru (Vishihstadwaita), then attain Guru and become one with Guru (Adwaitam). We should grow from the state of Dvaita and join Vishishtadvaitam and then Advaitam to finally merge in Paramatma.

Do we really need to understand all the three or any of these three for moksha? Definitely not necessary. That is why even have stories of an elephant, spider, a snake attaining moksha without any of these understandings but just by pure bhakti. Ofcourse, understanding them might guide us to choose the right path for mokha but not the necessary condition. So bhakti is more important than understanding these concepts.

This is what Lord Krishna says in the Gita.

नरहं वेदैनन तपिर न दरनेन न चेज्ययर।
शक्य एवंववधो द्ष्टुं दृष्टवरनमि मरं यथर।।11.53।।
भक्त्यर त्वनन्त्रययर शक्यमहमेवंववधोऽजुनन।
ज्ञरतुं दृष्टुं च तत्त्वेन प्रवेष्टुम् च परंतप।।11.54।।

It is not possible for anyone to see my form as you are now seeing , by Vedapathanam, by tapas, by dana or by yajnya karma.But O’ Parantapa! Arjuna! Only absolute devotion can lead to knowing me (ज्ञातुं), attaining tatvajnyanam, seeing my true from (द्ष्टुम्) and becoming one with me (प्रवेष्टुम्).

Finally, you may ask which of these three practices is the best?

Some people may believe only one of them is right and other two are wrong, or since i believe in one of them will not follow the other two. Well we can leave it to their personal choice, but it negates fundamental rule of sanatan dharma

आकाशात् पतितं तोयं यथा गच्छति सागरम् |
सर्वदेवनमस्कार: केशवं प्रति गच्छति ||

Just as all the water falling from the sky goes into sea, similarly salutations offered to all devata goes to kesava

As pointed by a learned person, to be able to evaluate a 5th class examination papers, you must have passed 5th class at the least. Similarly, if you want to evaluate a graduation level paper you should have even higher qualifications. Myself and people like me who are miles away from the very first step of Bhakti Marga, are incapable and unqualified to pass judgement on which is the last step of Bhakti Marga leading to moksha. Bhakti marga is the only means of reaching paramatma. Once we embark on this journey and reach the last step we will know for ourselves as to what is the suitable sindhamta. It would be foolish to not follow the bhakti marga just because we do not have clarity on these sidhantas, which are the final levels of this journey.

It is not our place to discuss the capabilities of the sadgurus or evaluate their teachings. The point is not to denigrate anyone, but to say that any person who tries to evaluate the sindhantas has not reached the level of gnyanam. In my view, a person who has attained the gnyanam would understand that all three Sidhantas teach the same truth and find it pointless to compare and debate on them.

By Sriramakrishna Turaga