Category Archives: History

The Liberation of Hyderabad State from the Nizam

While the rest of Bharat was celebrating Independence on 15th of August, 1947, Hyderabad state ( current Telangana, parts of Maharashtra & Karnataka ) under the Nizam was witnessing a different scenario: those who tried to celebrate were being caned, fired upon and arrested by Nizam’s Police. Razakaars (private militia of Nizam) were attacking the people and the Indian National Flag was being torn apart. It was amply evident that the rulers of the erstwhile Hyderabad state and their cohorts, were not inclined to celebrate Indian Freedom. The reason is not difficult to fathom: Nizam and his ilk neither considered themselves Bharatiyas nor wanted to be so.

In his book Pilgrimage to Freedom, Dr. KM Munshi, India’s Agent General in Hyderabad before the Police Action in Hyderabad, had written that the Nizam of Hyderabad had set his heart on becoming a third Dominion of the British Commonwealth. When Nizam saw that Clause 7 of the Indian Independence Bill did not permit the grant of Dominion Status to an Indian State, he had lamented against the “way in which my state is being abandoned by its old ally, the British Government, and the ties which have bound me in loyal devotion to the King Emperor are being severed.”

Some of the ‘hallmarks’ of Nizam’s regime were suppression of Bharatiya Culture and followers of Sanatana Dharma, victimization of Indian Nationalists, banning symbols of Indian civilization, forced conversions, promotion of Urdu at the cost of local languages like Telugu, Kannada and Marathi and above all, elimination of vocal voices against the Islamist tyranny through rape and day light assassinations.
In addition to the Islamist zealots Razakaars, the Communists were also a menace. In his book The Story of Integration of Indian States, author VP Menon writes the following regarding the Communists in the erstwhile state:
“…people went to the extent of saying that the Razakars ruled by day, while the Communists ruled by night…subsequently the Communists allied themselves with the Razakars who, for a time, had become the virtual masters of Hyderabad…the Razakars and the Communists were truly an ill-assorted pair, for whereas the former wanted to establish a Muslim oligarchy in the State, the latter’s purpose was to exploit the turmoil and confusion so that they could take possession of the State and ultimately spread their tentacles to the rest of India”
All efforts of GoI bore no fruit and Hyderabad State continued to dodge efforts aimed to bring it into the Indian Union. Nizam’s government started divesting itself of its Indian securities, banning the Indian currency, halting the export of precious metals and ground nuts, organising illegal gun-running from Pakistan, and inviting new recruits to its army and to its private Militia – the Razakaars.
These developments alarmed the then Home Minister Sardar Patel who had famously described an independent Hyderabad as “an ulcer in the heart of India which needed to be removed surgically.”
These events culminated in Sardar Patel instructing and authorizing Indian Army to execute Operation Polo – the code name for a brief 5-day Police Action which liberated Hyderabad from the clutches of Nizam. It commenced on 13th of September 1948 and ended swiftly on 17th of September, 1948 with the surrender of Nizam and the liberation of the erstwhile Hyderabad State. #HyderabadLiberationDay
Anant Seth

July 25, 1947; When Mountbatten addressed The Chamber of Princes to choose either of the 2 dominions; India or Pakistan, there was NO THIRD OPTION

The Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament on June 17, 1947 and received Royal assent on July 18, 1947; but the fate of the Princely States was largely decided on May 12, 1946 when the Memorandum on State Treaties and Paramountcy was presented to the Nawab of Bhopal and Chancellor of the Chamber of Princes in India by the Cabinet Mission. There was no pre-condition for accession except the decision of the rulers, though the importance of geographical contiguity was emphasized by Mountbatten to the rulers. The Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947 discussed the partition of India and advised the rulers of the states to join either of the two dominions in their own interest. On July 25, 1947 Mountbatten addressed a special meeting of the Chamber of Princes and reiterated the need to use the Instrument of Accession to accede to either of the two dominions. Maharaja Hari Singh joined India through this instrument, like the other Princely States.
There was no third option, Read the the address speech of  Crown Representative Lord Louis Mountbatten’s Address to A Special Full Meeting of The Chamber of Princes on July 25, 1947
“It is a Great pleasure and a great privilege for me to address so many Rulers, Dewans and Representatives of the States of India in this historic Chamber of Princes. It is the first and last occasion that I have the privilege of addressing you as crown Representative.
I would like to begin by giving you a very brief history of the negotiations I had conducted since I have been out here and the line that I have taken up about the States. There were two distinct problems that faced me. The first was how to transfer power to British India and the Second how to fit Indian States into the picture in a manner which would be fair and just to all concerned.
I dealt first with the problem of British India, because you will realize that until that problem was solved it was quite useless to try to start on a solution of the problem of the States. So I addressed my mind to the former. There had been universal acceptance among the States of the Cabinet Mission’s Memorandum of 12th May and when the political parties accepted the Statement of 3rd June they fully realized and accepted that withdrawal of Paramountcy would enable the States to regain complete sovereignty. That gave me a starting point from which to try and deal fairly with the states.
But before I got down to dealing with the States there was one other thing that I clearly had to do. I had to address myself to the problem of the mechanics of partition- a plan against my personal desires. As you all know, It took three years to separate Burma from India, in spite of the fact (as I can testify, as also His Highness of Bundi and other who fought in Burma) that there are no roads running between Indian and Burma. Nevertheless, it took three years to arrange that partition. It took two years to separate the province of Sind from Bombay. It took two years to separate the province of Orrissa from Bihar.
Gentlemen, we decided that in less than two and a half months we shall have to go through the partitioning of one of the biggest countries in the world with 400 million in habitants. There was a reason for the speed. I was quite certain that while the British overlordship remained no satisfactory conclusions could be reached psychologically between the parties. So once we got the two Governments set up and separated they would be able to try and finish off the details in an atmosphere of goodwill. Now, the Indian Independence Act releases all the States from all their obligations to the crown. The States will have complete freedom- technically and legally they become independent. Presently I will discuss the degree of Independence which we ourselves feel is best in the interests of your own states. But there has grown up during the period of British Administration, owing to the fact that the crown Representative and the Viceroy are one and the same person, a system of coordinated administration on all matters of common concern which meant that the sub-continent of India acted as an economic entity. That link is now to be broken. If nothing can be put in its place, only chaos can result, and that chaos, I submit will hurt the States first, the bigger the States the less the hurt and longer it will take to feel it-but even the biggest of the States will feel the hurt just the same as any small state. The first step was to set up some machinery by which it was possible to put the two future Governments of India- the Dominions of India and Pakistan-into direct touch with the States. So I conceived the scheme of setting up two states Departments within the future Governments. Please note that these States are not the successors of Political Departments. They have been set up simultaneously and side by side. While the Political department exercised functions relating to paramountcy on behalf of the Crown Representative, the States Departments are to take over those subjects gradually which have nothing to do with paramountcy but which will be concerned with relations with neighboring States and also provide the Machinery to negotiate in such matters. In India the States Department is under admirable guidance of Sardar Vallabhhai Patel with my own reforms Commissioner, Mr. VP Menon as Secretary. In Pakistan the Department is under Sardar Abdur Rab NIshtar with Mr. Ikramullah as the Secretary.
It was necessary to set up two States Departments, one in each Government, because States are theoretically free to link their future with whichever dominion they may care. But when I say that they are at liberty to link up with either of the Dominions, may I point that there are certain geographical compulsions which cannot be evaded. Out of something like 565 states the vast majority irretrievably linked geographically with the dominion of India. The problem therefore is of far greater magnitude with the dominion of India than it is with Pakistan. In the case of Pakistan the States although important, are not so numerous, and Mr. Jinnah, the future Governor-general of Pakistan, is prepared to negotiate the case of each State separately and individually. But in the case of India, where the overwhelming majority of the states are involved, clearly separate negotiation with each State is out the question.
The step that I took was to suggest that in the Bill Parliament- the Indian Independence Act- a clause should be put in which would enable certain essential agreement continue until renounced by either side. That was only done to ensure that there should be some continuity if in the short time available it was not possible to get the agreement through with every State representative. It does not replace the need for Standstill agreements; it gives a very slight breathing space. Now, I think it is no exaggeration to say that most Rulers and Dewans were apprehensive as to what their future would be when Paramountcy lapsed. At one time it appeared that unless they joined the Constituent Assembly and accepted the constitution when it was framed, they would be outside the organization and left in a position which, I submit, no state could view with equanimity -left out and having no satisfactory relations or contacts with either Dominion Government. You can imagine how relived I was , and I am sure you will yourselves have been equally relived when Sardar Vallabh bhai Patel on taking over the States Department made , if I may say so, a most Statesman like Statement of what he considered were the essentials towards agreement between the States and the Dominion of India. Let us turn for one moment to the Cabinet Mission Plan of 16 May 1946. In this Plan the proposal was that the States should surrender to Central Governments three subjects Defence, External Affairs and Communications. That was a plan which to the best of my belief, every Ruler and every State accepted as reasonable, fair and Just. I talked with so many Rulers and everyone felt that Defence was a matter that a State could not conduct itself. I am not talking of internal security but of defence against external aggression. I submit what if you do not link up with one or other of the Dominions; you may be cut off from any source of supplies of up-to-date arms or weapons.
“External Affairs” is inextricably linked up with Defence. “External Affairs” is something again which is outside the boundaries of India in which not even the greatest state can operate effectively. You can hardly want to go to the expense of having ambassadors or ministers or consuls in all foreign countries; surely you want to be able to use those of India or Pakistan. Once more I suggest that “External Affairs” is something that you have not dealt with since the formation of East India Company. It would be difficult to operate and will also be a source of embarrassment for you to have to take it up and it can only be managed by those who manage the Defence of the Country. I submit that if you take it up it will be a liability and not an asset.
The third subject is communications. “Communications” is really a means of maintaining the life-blood of the whole sub-continent. I imagine everybody agrees that the life of the country has got to go on. The continuity of communications is already has got to go on. The continuity of communications is already provided for to a certain extent in the Indian Independence Act; Therefore, I am sure you will agree that these three subjects have got to be handled for you for your convenience and advantage by a larger organization. This seems so obvious I was at loss to understand why some Rulers were reluctant to accept the position. One explanation probably was that some you were apprehensive that the Central Government would attempt to impose a financial liability on the States or encroach in other ways on their sovereignty. If I am right in this assumption, at any rate so far as some Prim concerned, I think I can dispel their apprehension misgivings. The Draft Instrument of Accession which I caused to be circulated as a basis for discussion (and not for publication) to the representatives of the States provides that the States accede to the appropriate Dominion on the three subjects only without any financial liability. Further, that Instrument contains an explicit provision that in no other matters has the Central Government any authority to encroach of the internal autonomy or the sovereignty of the States. This would, in my view, be a tremendous achievement for the States. But I must make it clear that I have still to persuade the Government of India to accept it. If all of you will co-operate with me and are ready to accede, I am confident that I can succeed in my efforts. Remember that the day of the transfer of power is very close at hand and, if you are prepared to come, you must come before 15 August.
I have no doubt that this is in the best interests of the States, and every wise Ruler and wise Government would desire to link up with the Great Dominion of India on a basis which leaves you great internal autonomy and which at the same time gets rid of your worries and cares over External Affairs, Defence and Communications. The whole country is passing through a critical period. I am not asking any State to make any intolerable sacrifice of either its internal autonomy or independence. My scheme leaves you with all the practical independence that you can possibly use and makes you free of all those subjects which you cannot possibly manage on your own. You cannot run away from the Dominion Government which is your neighbor any more than you can run away from the subjects for whose welfare you are responsible. Whatever may be your decision, I hope you feel that I have at least done my duty by the States.”
Source : JKNow

Brindavana of Sri Vyasatirtha

Brindavana of Sri Vyasatirtha (Rajaguru of Krishnadevaraya) has been destroyed last night by miscreants. Nava Brundavana Kshetra, an island in Tungabhadra river, adjacent to Hampi. Outrageous!

Navabrundaavana (also known as Navavrundhaavana and Navabrindavan) ನವ ಬೃಂದಾವನ is located at Hampi, Karnataka. It contains the Brundaavanas of nine Hindu Acharyas, who belong to Uttaradi Mutt, Sri Raghavendra mutt, Sri Vyasaraja mutt and the Sri SriPadaraja mutt and other prominent Madhwa Mutts. It is located on an island in the Tungabhadra River. The nine Dharmacharyas are:

Shree Padmanabha Tirtha, direct Sishya of Jagadguru Shri Madhvacharya

Shree Kavindra Teertharu

Shree Vageesha Teertharu

Shree Raghuvarya Teertharu

Shree Vyaasa Teertharu or Vyasaraajaru

Shree Sudheendhra Teertharu (Guru of Mantralaya Shri Raghavendra Tirtha)

Shree Srinivaasa Teertharu

Shree Raama Teertharu

Shree Govinda Vodeyaru

Swarajya, Swadharma and Swadeshi – The Key Issues of 1857 War of Independence –

May 10th, 1857 War of Independence began in Meeruth.

This war was fought all over the country on the issues of Swarajya, Swadharma, Swadeshi and Goraksha. Kamal (lotus)—the symbol of Hindu Dharma—and roti (bread)—the symbol of the basic needs of common man—were used as war symbols and people participated in large numbers from urban, rural, forest and hill areas. Precisely for this reason, the then British government had perpetrated heinous atrocities on common people along with freedom fighters.

The British derided this war as an ordinary and localised ‘Sepoy mutiny’ and an attempt to protect kingdoms and feudal states, so that the ordinary masses would not get any inspiration from it. Unfortunately, a section of our countrymen joined this chorus and started describing it as merely a ‘Sepoy mutiny’. Even our history textbooks too present it in the same manner. In spite of all this, the scintillating image of this war as a glorious War of Independence remained intact in the hearts of the people.

Swatantryaveer Savarkar authored a well-researched treatise on this War of Independence and threw light on its popular and countrywide character and its impact on the freedom struggle that followed. It played a very important role during the Independence Movement despite the British imposing a ban even before its publication. The post-1857 history is a standing testimony to the fact that on one hand the revolutionaries and other freedom fighters drew inspiration from the narratives of sacrifices and valour of this great war until the time of Independence, while on the other hand, it provided a major source of inspiration in the struggle for the liberation of Goa and Puducherry (Pondicherry) after Independence.

Some people interpret this war as a symbol of Hindu-Muslim unity. While there is nothing objectionable about it, it cannot be kept in the category of the efforts for Hindu-Muslim unity based on mindless appeasement that took place in the latter part of our freedom struggle. It should be kept in mind that all these efforts had culminated in the tragic Partition of our country in 1947. The participation of the Muslims in the 1857 war was based on positive grounds rather than on religion-based separatist mindset. Honouring the Hindu sentiments, the then Muslim leadership agreed on matters like ban on cow-slaughter, death penalty to the slaughterers of cows, handing over the Ramjanmabhoomi in Ayodhya to Hindus etc. This dimension of Hindu-Muslim co-operation of 1857 should always be kept in mind.

Sacred memories of the freedom struggle and its martyrs are ever-inspiring.

  • From RSS ABPS 2007 


Related articles

1857 War – British Holocaust 


संत परम्परा में समरसता के वाहक श्री रामानुजाचार्य जी


जीवन परिचय

  • तमिलनाडु के श्री पेरुम्बदूर कस्बे में विक्रम संवत 1074 को रामानुजाचार्य का जन्म हुआ।पिता जी केशवाचार्य व माता जी का नाम कान्तिमती थी। बचपन से ही रामानुजाचार्य की बुद्धि अत्यंत विलक्षण थी। 15 वर्ष की अवस्था में ही उन्होंने सभी शास्त्रों का गहन अध्ययन कर लिया था।
  • 16 वर्ष की आयु में इनका विवाह रक्षम्बाके साथ हुआ। 23 वर्ष की आयु में गृहस्थ आश्रम त्यागकर श्रीरंगम के यदिराज संन्यासी से संन्यास की दीक्षा ली।
  • श्री रामानुजाचार्य अपने काल के अत्यंत विद्वान, साहसी तथा सामाजिक दृष्टिकोण से उदार धार्मिक पथ प्रदर्शक थे।प्रख्यात लेखक हूपर ने भक्ति की चर्चा करते हुए कहा कि श्री रामानुजाचार्य के पूर्व आलवारों ने भक्ति की सुंदर भूमि तैयार की थी, जिस पर रामानुज ने भक्ति का प्रसार किया।

श्री रामानुजाचार्य और सामाजिक समरसता

  • श्री रामानुजाचार्य ने हिन्दू समाज के पिछड़े वर्ग की पीड़ा और उपेक्षा को ह्रदयसे अनुभव किया। उस समय की प्रचलित सामाजिक एवं धार्मिक अनुष्ठान पद्धतियों में यथा संभव सुधार तथा नयी अनुष्ठान पद्धतियों की सृष्टि उन सभी लोगों के लिए की जीने लिए उस काल में जरुरी थी
  • ब्राह्मण से लेकर चांडाल तक सभी जात-वर्गों के लिए सर्वोच्च आध्यत्मिक उपासना के द्वार, लोगों की आलोचना के बावजूद उन्होंने खोल दिए।इस कार्य के लिए उनको स्थान-स्थान पर भारी विरोध का सामना करना पड़ा, किन्तु न व डरे, न झिझके और न ही रुके
  • श्री रामानुजाचार्य, सामाजिक दृष्टि से वर्णव्यवस्था के अन्दर किसी भी प्रकार के भेदभाव को स्वीकार नहीं करते थे।उनके अनेक शिष्य निम्न कहि जाने वाली जातियों से थे। भगवान की रथयात्रा के अवसर पर तथाकथित निम्न जातियोँ वाले ही रथ पहले खींचते थे। वही परम्परा आज भी चली आ रही है।
  • उन्होंने वैष्णव धर्म के प्रचार के लिए पूरे देश का भ्रमण किया
  • उन्होंने शुद्र गुरुओं का शिष्यत्व स्वीकार किया तथा चांडाल के हाथ से भोजन करने में भी श्री रामानुजाचार्य ने कभी संकोच नही किया
  • श्री रामानुजाचार्य वृद्धावस्थामें स्नान करने को जाते समय दो ब्राह्मण के कन्धों पर हाथ रखकर जाते थे और जब स्नान कर वापस आते थे तब दो चर्मकारों के कन्धों का सहारा लेकर आते थे| लोगों ने जब इस पर आपत्ति की तो उन्होंने कहा – अरे ! मन की कलुषता को समाप्त करो’ उनका मानना था कि:


 न जाति: कारणं लोके गुणा: कल्याणहेतव :

अर्थात जाति नहीं, वरन गुण ही कल्याण का कारण है |

  • श्री रामानुजाचार्य ने श्री रंगपट्टम के उत्तर में मेलुकोट (दक्षिण बद्रिकाश्रम) नामक स्थान तिरूनारायण पेरूमाल वैष्णव मंदिर के द्वार पंचमों (शूद्रों से भी दूर कहे जाने वाले लोगों)के लिए खोल दिए थे। वे कहते हैं की क्षुद्र, निराश्रय मानव भी अपनी भक्ति, समर्पण तथा ज्ञान के सहारे ईश्वर को प्राप्त कर लेता है।
  • इस व्यापक भावना ने सामाजिक सद्भाव तथा सहिष्णुताको जन्म दिया और वर्ण, जाति के भेदभाव से दूर आदर्श समाज व्यवस्था निर्माण करने का प्रयास किए

श्री रामानुजाचार्य एवं एकता और अखंडता

  • उन्होंनेरामेश्वरम से लेकर बद्रीनाथ तक कि यात्रा की। आलवार भक्तों के तीर्थस्थानों की यात्रा व उत्तर भारत की यात्रा में काशी, अयोध्या, बद्रीनाथ, कश्मीर, जगन्नाथपुरी, द्वारिका आदि तीर्थस्थलों पर अपने आध्यात्मिक तथा सामाजिक विचारों को लेकर गए।
  • श्री रामानुजाचार्य ने लोकजागरण का आधार भक्ति को ही मान्य किया और भक्ति के प्रचार-प्रसार के लिए व्यापक प्रयास किया।ज्ञान और भक्ति की गंगा बहाते हुए हिन्दू संस्कृति का पुनरूत्थान तथा सामाजिक जागरण का महान कार्य किया

श्रीरामानुजाचार्य द्वारा रचित ग्रन्थ, भाष्य

  • मूल ग्रन्थ :ब्रह्मसूत्र पर भाष्य ‘श्रीभाष्य’ एवं ‘वेदार्थ संग्रह’।
  • गुरु की इच्छानुसार रामानुज ने उनसे तीन काम करने का संकल्प लिया था- ब्रह्मसूत्र, विष्णु सहस्रनाम और दिव्य प्रबंधनम की टीका लिखना।अपने शिष्य ‘कुरंत्तालवार’ को लेकर वे श्री नगर गए तथा वापस श्री रंगम आकर श्रीभाष्य लिखने लगे।
  • उन्होंने वेदांत दीप, वेदांत सार, वेदार्थ संग्रह, गीता भाष्य, नित्य ग्रन्थ तथा गद्य त्रयम (शरणागति गद्य, श्री रंगम गद्य, श्री बैकुंठ गद्य) की रचना की।
  • विशिष्टाद्वैत दर्शन: रामनुजाचार्य के दर्शन में सत्ता या परमसत् के सम्बन्ध में तीन स्तर माने गए हैं- ब्रह्म अर्थात ईश्वर, चित् अर्थात आत्म, तथा अचित अर्थात प्रकृति।
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