Dr.Abdul Kalam In The Eyes of Islamic Scholars

The tragedy is that someone whom the nation reveres and hopes that all young Indian Muslims should follow his footsteps, has been cariactured as a covert Hindu by Islamic scholars. No wonder that they promote their heroes are Aurangzeb and Ghaznavi as their heroes and communalise the minds of young Muslims.

Dr.Rafiq Zakaria’s objection to Dr.Abdul Kalam being called a Muslim can be summarised in thie following statements by the so-called Islamic scholar himself

” He goes through the Gita and is enchanted by it. He is sincerely devoted to Krishna. He recites the Hindu mantras on every occasion.  He is a strict vegetarian and a life-long brahmachari….and he enjoys all the sacred Hindu scriptures” 

Hindus don’t become lesser Hindus when they go to dargah, celebrate Ramzan with their friends, sing Sufi Music but it does seem that a Muslim who reads the Gita becomes a less Muslim ! Was Dr.Kalam declared less Muslim because he was an thorough Indian by heart and deed.

We rest the case for readers to assess the mind-set that is taking their community to the path of anti-pluralism and rigidity !

Full article by Dr.Zakaria is below.

Whats Muslim about Kalam?

Author: Dr Rafiq Zakaria
Publication: The Asian Age
Date: June 19, 2002

Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, who will be our next President, is by all accounts a great scientist; his  contribution to India’s defence is of the highest order; he is rightly called the Missile Man; every Indian feels proud of him; he is in every respect a Bharat Ratna. But because he was born a  Muslim and bears a Muslim name, he should not be put in the same category as the two  former Muslim Presidents, Dr Zakir Husain and Mr Fakruddin Ali Ahmed. Both of them were as great a patriot and Indian to the core as Dr Kalam. But they were also Muslims in the real sense of the word; they believed in the tenets of the Quran and faithfully followed the traditions of the Prophet. They worked for the uplift of the Muslims as much as for the progress of India. They  were ardent followers of Gandhiji and had sacrificed for the cause of India’s freedom. They  opposed Jinnah’s Two- Nation  theory  and  were  close  associates  of  Maulana  Azad.  They had full faith in India’s composite culture and never hesitated to be a part of her ancient heritage.
Withal, they were also deeply involved in the hopes and aspirations of Indian Muslims; they  engaged themselves actively in the emancipation of their community. Dr Zakir Husain built up the Jamia Millia Islamia and was for some time the  vice-chancellor  of  the  Aligarh  Muslim  University. Similarly Mr Fakruddin Ali Ahmad always took up the cause of the Muslims, both in Assam and in the rest of the country.

I am afraid, Dr Kalam has kept himself completely away from Muslims; he refused to mix with them and even when invited to participate in their nationalistic activities, he politely declined. As chairman of the  All-India  Khilafat  Committee  I  requested  him  to  be  the  chief  guest  at  the mammoth Prophet’s birthday celebrations in Mumbai, which is attended by more than ten lakh Muslims every year, but he refused. This was, in fact, started by Gandhiji in the wake of the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movement in 1921 to promote Hindu-Muslim unity. It has been attended by most of our national leaders both during the Freedom Struggle and after Independence, even Prime Ministers and other highest dignitaries have graced the occasion by their participation. Likewise, Dr Ishaq Jamkhanwala, president of Anjuman-i-Islam,which was founded by the third Congress president, Mr Justice Badruddin Tyabjee, tells  me that his invitation to Dr Kalam to visit the Anjuman to deliver the famous Seerut lecture to  pay homage to the Prophet was turned down by him. He has hardly shown any interest in the  affairs of the Muslim nor has he had any affiliation with the practices and conventions of Islam.

He was one of the founder trustees with me of Maulana Azad Educational Foundation, floated  by Government of India for promoting and aiding education among the Muslims; but Dr Kalam showed no interest in its work.

Dr Kalam feels much more at home with the Hindus. His Hindu friends, with whom he has  spent a good deal of his life, have testified to the fact that he is far more attracted to Hinduism than Islam; I find nothing wrong with it. But for God’s sake, don’t describe him as a Muslim  President and take credit for having obliged the Muslims for giving them this great honour.  K. Rama Rao, former director of Defence Research and Development Laboratories (DRDL)  writes: “I have known him for more than three decades, but find him the same, from the simple and unassuming fellow who shared a room with me in 1954 to the one who became my boss in the ’80s. He would stay up late at night, eat vegetarian food and never show any signs of being a Muslim. I have not seen him offering prayers during namaz nor fast during Ramzan.”  Likewise R. Aravamudan, former director ISRO’s Satellite Centre, Bangalore: “We lived in Indira Bhavan Lodge in Thiruvananthapuram. People there called him Kalam Iyer because he moved around with Brahmins and had similar eating habit. The only non-vegetarian food he ate occasionally was egg masala along with Kerala parottas. He would not  talk much about his parents or siblings.”

Dr Kalam never reads the Quran but every morning he goes through the Gita and is enchanted by it. He is sincerely devoted to Krishna. He recites the Hindu mantras on every occasion. Namaz does not appeal him nor has he ever fasted in the month of Ramzan. He is a strict vegetarian and a  life-long  brahmachari.  His  roots  are  really  in  Hinduism  and  he  enjoys  all  the sacred Hindu scriptures. Hence the credit for his elevation, in communal terms, should go to the Hindus; to give it to the Muslims would be wrong. In fact Dr Kalam himself would be happy if he is not described as a Muslim President and his name is not linked with Dr Zakir  Husain and Mr Fakruddin Ali Ahmad.

This does not mean that he is not a good man or inferior to the two Muslim Presidents; I am  only objecting to the appellation. He is in fact most worthy to be President. He is great in the true sense, and his simplicity, humility and honesty will add lustre to the highest office of our  country. I wish him all the best; may God, of whatever denomination Dr Kalam believes in, be  with him

Tackling the Caste Based Reservation Debate – Positively

For a few years in every decade, the discussion about caste based reservation becomes hot. The 60’s and 70’s saw anti-upper caste movements in many states esp South India. In 80’s, there was a huge anti-reservation movement in Gujarath. In 90’s we had the anti-Mandal commission movement. The decade of 2000’s saw consolidation of castes and some some improbable alignments between SC’s and so-called upper castes in states like Uttar Pradesh. In this decade, this discussion has once again started. However, the tragedy is that the stakeholders don’t progress towards a solution and positions only become more rigid. What are the reasons ?

Period of Turmoil is the worst period to engage in a free and fair discussion. Basically because issues are clouded due to prejudice, personal experiences and positions are strong. However, considering that the discussions are now rampant esp on Social media platforms, it  maybe worthwhile to examine the issues raised.

Those who oppose reservations Say 

  1. The constitution makers envisaged only 10 years for reservations. Why is it continuing till date?
  2. Why should merit suffer ? It leads to mediocrity.
  3. Is this not reverse discrimination ?
  4. Reservation should be on the basis of economic criteria

Those who support Reservations Say 

  1. The lower castes were subjected to discrimination for centuries by Hindu society and hence seek redressal.
  2. Discrimination is still rampant and large sections are still unprivileged and therefore a case for reservations.

In both positions, there is merit in the argument. However, instead of seeing each other point of view by dialogue, the groups have transferred their power of attorney to politicians who make good use of the issues to further their cause.  Personal rivalries, Election clashes, land and family disputes also take up that vicious form. Further, the politician or the interested person gives it the colour of conflict between two castes just to save his skin and serve his political ends. At such times, unfortunately, many well-meaning persons are made pawns in this game.

Let us try and address the issues one by one :


The standard terminology that is used is “Discrimination of centuries by upper castes”. The character of a society is revealed during times of crisis. History bears testimony that for centuries that all castes stood by each other to fight the invaders. In fact, there are no instances in history which show inter-caste conflict as the reason for a loss. So-called lower castes like Jat,Mina, Meo,Bachgoti, Baghela,Tomar,Barwaris,Gonds, Bhils, Satnamis,Marathas,Oraons, Gujars, Kunbis, put up a heroic and determined resistance to the invaders.

Battles that we lost were either due to personal ambition, treachery, excessive chivalry or under-preparedness.  The subsequent treatment of all Hindu jaatis by the invaders was the same – oppression. In fact, the so-called upper castes were subjected to the highest form of discrimination. Many of them were later made to menial jobs like manual scavenging and it lead to an increase in castes which were later enumerated as Scheduled castes, Scheduled Tribes.  The book ” Growth of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Medieval India” throws great light on the same.

Unfortunately over a period of time, leadership of the rest of the so-called upper castes of society became rigid, forgot its moorings & intrinsic spirit of our scriptures of Atmavat Sarva Bhuteshu .  As Swami Vivekananda puts it, “Touch me not ism” became prevalent. So much so that some communities were debarred from temple entry, getting water from the same source as others and also basic respect.

 British Rule 

During the British period, many artisan jaatis ( castes ) were destroyed effectively making them backward. Some castes which revolted were marked as criminal castes. When the British introduced their education system, many of the then upper castes took to it ( or motivated to take to it ) and were given jobs in administration positions. This was the period when the systematic discrimination was brought in.

Pre-British rule surveys by British surveryors show that all sections of society received education in large numbers. This was later documented in the Beautiful Tree by Sri Dharampal. The British education system made it difficult for lower castes to get educated. The caste system became legally rigid during the British Raj, when the British started to enumerate castes during their ten-year census and meticulously codified the system. A system which was self-managed was made dependent on government for grants and sops.

Reverse Discrimination 

The argument by the anti-reservation groups is that what is being practised today is reverse discrimination. ” Why should we suffer ” they say ?

At the face of it, yes it does seem unfair that those who had nothing to do with the “wrongs” of the past are facing the brunt of a policy in which they feel wronged.  However, in a nation’s life,  esp when one considers the society as an extended family, it is inevitable that some sections of society sacrifice some of their comforts for the sake of the less privileged. The term less privileged in this case is not from the economic point of view but from a social perspective. However, this cannot run endlessly. Community leaders from all sections have to come forward to discuss these issues and work out solutions.

Post Independence :

After Independence, the Constitution makers gave a provision for reservations to certain sections of society to enable them to regain social status in society. However, the implementation of affirmative action seems to be flawed and instead of the number of reserved castes reducing over time , it has only increased.

What Does this lead to ? 

  • Society, esp the unreserved categories lose confidence that reservation as a policy would ever go away and therefore they make efforts as groups to become part of the bandwagon viz to stake claim of backwardness or seek other forms of reservations.
  • The most needy communities in terms of social status still don’t get the benefit of reservations which makes the case for the same to be retained.
  • There is no movement from the politicians to instill a feeling of swabhimaana and motivation to move forward. Before the British came, there were hundreds of instances of communities moving forward from so-called lower caste status. It effectively meant that the desire of communities was to be respected.
  • Politicians make communities a pawn in their game of power showing the carrot of benefits.

Growth of SC ,ST’s and BC’s post Independence : 

In 1950 we had 1208 SC castes. 2011 census : 1241; List of SC’s in 1950

In 1950 , we had 664 Scheduled Tribes. 2011 we have 705;

1950 we had 1257 communities enumerated as Backward Classes. It must be noted that the constitution framers scrupulously used the word “Other Socially and Educationally Backward classes” and not castes for OBC’s. However, new political movements use the word Other backward Castes for OBC’s.

In 1979 –  3743 castes and communities were enumerated as OBC’s;  In 2013 – this number was put at 5013.

The above numbers are a consolidation of the castes and communities enumerated in various states and Union Territories. There are many castes which have an overlap in the states.

It effectively shows that instead we now have more and more castes aspiring to become part of the SC,ST and BC community list. The constitution has been amended dozens of time to include more castes into this list.

The recent movement by the Patel’s of Gujarath also falls in the same category. It either shows that communities are being further impoverished by government policies or that there is a rush to fall backwards. It also shows that the government is not the agency which can stop this.

How can we Win Over this Situation  ?

This problem cannot have  political solution because it requires political parties to have a view bigger than electoral politics. It can be solved by 3 stakeholders – Individuals, Community leaders (non-politicians ) and Sadhus. We cannot wash away the fact that some of the castes were subjected to inhuman social discrimination, lack of temple entry during a period of time as stated above .

a. In 1921 Census- The Race Was To Rise In Hierarchy – Understanding Why ?

Hindus never believed in living at the mercy of other. Swabhimaana or self-respect was an essential part of our value system. In 1921, jaati ( caste ) sabhas put up representations to be called as Higher castes. The representations included – Ahars as Yadavas, Yadava as kshatriya, Aheria as Hara Rajput, Ahir as Kshatriya, Banjaras as Chauhans and Rajputs, Barhai as Dhiman Brahman, Chamar as Jatav Rajput, Gadaria as Pali Rajput, Gujar as kshatriya, Jat as Jaduvanshi Thakur, Nai as Nai Brahman, Patwa as Brahman and so on..This list runs to 63 pages . Each of this caste demanding a higher place in the social hierarchy. Contrast this with the movements later where movements were made so that Scheduled castes be called as Crushed communities- Dalits.  Also, the census thereafter showed that numbers in castes changed frequently. For example,  Yeatts, who was the  British Census officer compared 5 successive censuses and wrote that caste enumeration is useless since the figures swing. He gave examples of Ambattans who were recorded as 2,27,000 in one census and in successive ones, they came to 10,000 because they went to other jaatis. Similarly, the number of gollas declined but Yadavas increased. The reason being one Jaati had many upajaatis ( sub-castes ) and transmigration among upajaatis was common. It is for this reason that the British made enumeration of caste rigid and tied benefits like jobs, sops etc to caste.

b. Ending Social Discrimination 

As the 3rd RSS Sarsanghchalak, Sri Balasaheb Deoras put it,

” In this task of bringing about social equality, we should be able to win over the support and cooperation of various types of people. We should, for that purpose, conduct our selves with restraint and grace. Then only we will be successful. There are our religious leaders, saints, sages and scholars. They hold a sway over the popular mind. Their cooperation in this task is essential. Sometimes we feel that they are firmly attached to only the old customs and would not like to see them changed. However, this should not make us mistake their good intentions.In other countries too there are religious teachers pinning their faith on ancient systems. Nevertheless the people there do not ridicule them on that account. We too, with proper approach, could plead with our religious leaders that they should, in their preaching’s and discourses, tell the people which facets of our Dharma are of eternal value and which of them changeable according to the times, and that such an exposition on their part would be more impressive and pervasive in its effect. We should also submit to them that the responsibility of protecting the society is theirs and that it can be discharged only by their coming out of their ashrams and mutts and unreservedly mixing in the society.
Though this appears as an uphill task, actually it is not so. Fortunately there are already auspicious indications that our Dharma Gurus have started working in this direction.”

c. Invoking Swabhimaana  or Self- Respect

The above examples show that the so-called “backward” communities also did not ask for the mercy of anybody. They only desired an equal status with others and that too on their own merits. The Dalit Chamber of commerce is one such initiative in instilling a feeling of self-confidence and aspiration among the scheduled castes. We are seeing individual instances of people from SC,ST and BC’s giving up reservations for themselves and their children as a contribution from their side for the nation. Such people must be celebrated and discussed. Dr.Prakash Ambedkar, grandson of Dr.BR Ambedkar also stepped in stating that it is time to end Political reservations .

It is for the communities getting reservations to think and strive and chalk out a time-bound plan of rising themselves up. A day has to come when all of us will feel equal, equal in our worth and capacities.And it is for them to decide how long these privileges should continue. Groups of such individuals must educate their own community members to give up reservations for the sake of the more under-privileged ones.   Read also – Social Equality & Hindu Consolidation

d. Empathy

I complained I had no shoes until I met a man who had no feet “. While it is true that many beneficiaries can actually give up reservation for their next generation, it is equally true that there are many more who deserve affirmative action. It is important that the socially upwardly mobile communities share a emphatic view on the situation of communities who are socially deprived. The entire society must invest in educating the more underprivileged communities and give them a sense of self-respect.

e. See Through the Game & Let Us All Show Maturity 

Some people are making derogatory caricatures on both sides showing the other group as wily characters. This is the work of those who want to divide the society and a continuation of the British mindset.. This is not the first time a social issue is being discussed in our nation. A social issue needs to be handled with maturity of a society which has a civilization history of atleast 10000 years.

We must show ourselves, the world and our generation next that we are worthy descendants of ancestors who wanted to Ennoble the World by Krunvanto Vishwam Aryam .  We cannot allow a set of political leaders to hijack the nation’s progress. At the same time, we must know our history of handling social issues and then Discuss and Resolve Issues – We must !

– Ayush Nadimpalli

Sources :

i) Government Census – 1950 to 2011

ii) Social Equality and Hindu Consolidation – By Sri Balasaheb Deoras

iii) Growth of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in Medieval India – Sri KS Lal

iv) Falling Over Backwards by Sri Arun Shourie

v) RSS resolution on reservations – 1981

Are the Hindu Daughters of Bengal Safe – Tuktuki Mondal Case


The abduction and rape of a teen from rural West Bengal is the latest addition to a long list of Hindu girls victimised by Muslim goons in the State as part of their Love Jihad campaign. This has been going on for a few decades in the state.   Tuktuki was forcibly abducted for a period over 75 days by Babusona Gazi, a local TMC hooligan as known.   The second time she was converted to Islam by the Maulana who renamed her Nasrah.  After a heroic effort by Hindu Samhati lead by Sri Tapan Ghosh, an army of active social media  activists who put pressure on the government to act, BJP activists and other Hindu organisations, the girl was finally rescued.  The Calcutta high court has finally indicted the West Bengal government for failing to arrest a single accused. The NCW report has also completely exposed the government.

Tuktuki Mandal was a student of Class 10 at the local village school in Magrahat police station area of South 24 Parganas district, West Bengal. On February 25 this year she was abducted while returning home from the nearby bank where she had gone to check the balance in her account. According to her father, Subhash Mandal, a daily wage-earner, she was abducted by three goons who are members of a gang headed by a hoodlum called Salim. He is believed to enjoy the patronage of the ruling Trinamool Congress. Before Mamata Banerjee came to power, Salim was a CPI(M) thug. Like most thugs in West Bengal, he switched political loyalties in the summer of 2011.

The distraught father sought the Panchayat Pradhan’s help. In turn, he was asked to file a police complaint, which he did at Magrahat police station. Nothing happened. Subhash Mandal says Salim’s men called him for a meeting on the night of March 7 at the house of a man called Babusona Gazi. Subhash Mandal claims when he reached Gazi’s house, he found at least 50 men there, armed with guns. According to him, he was asked to “sign some blank papers and told to withdraw the police complaint”.

Subhash Mandal objected to the conditions imposed by his daughter’s tormentors. They told him he would get to see his daughter again only if he “withdrew the complaint and would not get the girl medically examined”. He says the goons promised to help him financially with his daughter’s marriage. He says he felt helpless and scared, so he “agreed to their proposal and signed the papers”. Tuktuki was handed over to her father. Later his wife told him that Tuktuki had been “repeatedly raped”.

Source material for above from

  1. Hindu Existence
  2. SatyaVijayi.com
  3. Tweets from Sri tapanghosh
  4. Ethinc Cleansing of Panchgram

The Tuktuki Mondal case once again proves that the Muslim leadership  overtures to Scheduled castes ( so-called Dalits) stating that they are sympathetic to their issues is a mere eyewash. From pre-partition times, it is the SC’s who have borne the brunt of many Muslim attacks on them. Sri Jogendranath Mondal had documented similar attacks then. This article on the issue also reveals the strategy to confuse the Hindu society. Read More

Indian Census 2011 – Alarming Signs

The Hindu population is now officially below 80% nationally as per the census. If we consider the undeclared Christian population to it, ( those who enjoy Hindu reservation benefits but practise Christianity ), the numbers would be further lower to this.

For those wondering why a reduced Hindu population should be a matter of concern, recall the words of Dr.Annie Beasant

Hindus and India

Hindus and India

 In 4 states, Muslim population has grown by over 2%. Muslims are near 97% in Lakshadweep, and 68% in J&K. 6 states have over 15% Muslim population.

States like Assam, Bengal which have seen a lot of infiltration of Muslims, but equally concerning is growth in a temple state like Uttarakhand. A recent visit to Nainital confirms that Muslims have virtually taken over large portions of this temple town which houses Naina Devi. Is it due to infiltration via Nepal or is it homegrown numbers ?

Muslim Population Growth

Muslim population

Christian population is generally misleading since a lot of Christians do not officially show their numbers to enjoy Hindu reservation benefits. In the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu, the Christians would definitely be over 10%.

States like Arunachal Pradesh which had a ban on religious conversions see a free conversion spree. Christians grew by over 12%. Manipur had a Xtian growth of 7%

Xtian population

From the above data, it is clear that Hindus are in a minority in the states of Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, J&K and in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep. They are less than 65% in the states of Kerala, Goa, Assam, Manipur,

Category Total Male Female Percentage
India 1210854977 623270258 587584719
Hindus 966257353 498306968 467950385 79.8
Muslims 172245158 88273945 83971213 14.2
Christians 27819588 13751031 14068557 2.3
Sikhs 20833116 10948431 9884685 1.7
Buddhists 8442972 4296010 4146962 0.7
Jains 4451753 2278097 2173656 0.4
Other Religions and Persuations 7937734 3952064 3985670 0.7

The growth rate of population of the different religious communities in the same period was: 16.8% for Hindus; 24.6% for Muslims; 15.5% for Christians; 8.4% for Sikhs; 6.1% for Buddhists and 5.4% for Jains

This is a serious matter. Only 6 decades ago, the country was partition on the basis of religion. the same community is now being allowed a free-hand in growing  their numbers. At the same time they enjoy privileges of minority rights, create sense of insecurity in the areas where they have larger numbers.  History shows that whenever the Hindu numbers have reduced, those parts become communally very sensitive, lead to ethnic cleansing and ultimately lead to secession. इतिहास बताता है की ” जब हिन्दू घटा देश बटा “

It is generally noted that such issues are not shared much among Hindus for the fear of being branded as “Non-Secular”. Hindus have to realise that unless they treat this an issue of national importance, we would lose all the civilization parameters based which our nation was called Bharat or Hindustan.

Also Read

Non-Kshatriyas Jaatis Performing Kshatriya Dharma

Role of so-called Non Kshatriya Jaatis esp from Non-Brahmin Jaatis Leading in Battles for Hindu Revival 

Many a times, varna and jaati are mixed. It would surprise one to know that nowhere in our texts is there mention of Vaishya jaati. Vaishya is a varna ( people who wanted to expand business ) . They came from all jaatis and since they were basically engaged in selling in outside lands for which they had to travel long periods, sometimes for over 2 years, they went along in groups of families.

In later period, this may have got stratified. For example, even though Marwari sounds like a jaati, it simple means those that belong to area of Marwar. Since most of them were engaged in business, they got identified with vaishya community. However, there are Marwaris of various jaatis.

Similarly, while some jaatis were entrusted with the role of protection ( kshatriyas ), there are numerous examples of other jaatis who came to occupy the role of the kshatriya and also won many battles against trained Muslim armies. This would not have been possible had they not been trained in war strategy and tactics.

2. Barwaris, a scheduled caste jaati involved in leather cleaing – In 1299, Barwaris of Gujarat rose in revenge of the sack of Gujarat and helped Khusrau Khan in planning and excution of Qutubuddin. Khusrau was a forcible Muslim covert at but still retained Hinduness at heart. . Khusrau Khan changed his name to Khusrau Shah began workship of vigrahas in Delhi, forbade cow slaughter. Over 40,000 barwaris marched into Delhi and their leader was annointed a general by Khusrau Shah

3. Khokkars were an agricultural tribe and they lead a resistance for over 250 years. They tenaciously opposed Muhammad Ghori and eventually killed him. They even had taken over Lahore.

4. Gonds were also an agricultural community or worked in forests. They had their own systems of rulership and were called Rajas. Rani of Gondwana – Durgavati, Raja of Garha Garola, Harya, Salwani, Manola, Lanji continued their battle. An Agrarian jaati which took up the role of Kshatriyas.

5. Bhils a tribe support to Rana Pratap. Because of them the chiefs of Marwar were never short of manpower. It must be noted that during their ascension, evey Rajput chiefs to be marked on the brow with the blood of Bhils. The state emblemn of Rana Pratap bore the Bhils on it as a testimony their bravery. After his loss at Haldighati, Rana regrouped and n all his forts except Chittor, Ajmer and Mandalgarh. Pratap’s army also had chieftains from Bhil community trained in strategy and tactics. Rana’s army comprising of majority Bhils succeeded in winning many battles of so-called disciplined Muslim forces. Without training in military warfare of the Bhils, would Rana be able to regain those sites.?

6. Satnamis – A Chamar sect was an offshoot of the Raidasis. They followed agriculture and trade on small scale. 5000 Satnamis fought Aurangzeb’s army. He had to send out additional force of 10000 soldiers to coutner them in 1672.

7. Jats, Marathas and Sikhs – Jats were mostly peasants who fought continuous battles from 1661. Raja Ram and Ram Chehra, zamindars of Sinsani and Sogar assumed leadership of Jats in 1685. They builds small forts and trained the peasants in warfare. They killed Mughal warrior Aghar Khan and then attacked Mahabat Khan and marched into Punjab. They also plundered Akbar’s tomb.

It must be noted that Jats, the Marathas and most of the Sikh warriors came from backward classes since the struggle was given up by the Rajputs. Surajmal rose to the position of a Raja and spearheaded the struggle in Agra-Mathura. Marathas were also among backward castes.

Sivaji himself was from a Kunbi jaati. Kunbis are basically agrarian community who over a period of time took up kinship. Sivaji was also trained by Dada Kondadev, guided by Samartha Ramdas and his army consisted of generals like Tanaji Malsure, yeshaji Kank and many other generals who were from so-called non Kshatriya jaatis ); took up the role of Kshatriyas.

While there was resistance to him assuming the name of Chatrapati, it must also be remembered that the coronation was presided over by Gaga Bhatt, a Brahmin from Varanasi who convinced those who opposed his coronation.

It was after their sustained prowess that the Marathas and Sikhs were considered as martial segments of Hindu society.

8. Oraons – Oraons are also known as Kol which is a generic name for Munda, Ho and Oraon tribes of Chota Nagpur and Santhal paraganas. The Oraons defeated Jahangir and their victory is even today celebrated as Jani Shikar.

9. Reddi Rajas – After the defeat of the kshatriya clans, the Andhra Reddis took over the task. Raja Vema regained the agraharas from the mlechas. An inscription by Singaya-Nayaka clearly proclaims the pride that they took in defending the country when the kshatriya clans were vanquished. . Another inscrpition by his cousin Kapaya Nayaka also talks about how they rescued the Andhra kingdom from the Mohammadans.

There are many more such instances of non-Kshatriya clans, taking up the role of Kshatriyas and defending the country as Kshatriyas. Some jaatis remained as Kshatriyas and some other went back to their traditional vocations. It also shows that people from all jaatis had great respect for their own vocation and depending on the situation were trained and were willing to take up the responsibilities of various varnas.

Majority of above material is from Growth of Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribes in Medieval India by Sri KS Lal