This is a very important article which calls the cloak off the most damaging theory concocted by the British and served to Indians. Most of the apparent differences that are seen in Indian society like the North-South Divide, Upper caste – Lower caste divides, language problems, can be related to the Aryan-Dravidian theory. I believe that this theory to be the most successful chapter of the British ‘Divide and Rule” policy. They employed Muller as part of Macaulay’s grand scheme to devalue Indian history. So much so, that today we have large sections of “educated Indians” who undermine their own heritage and consider that the British rule as a great chapter in India’s history.
The original link has been moved by BBC into archives
One of the most controversial ideas about Hindu history is the Aryan invasion theory.
This theory, originally devised by F. Max Muller in 1848, traces the history of Hinduism to the invasion of India’s indigenous people by lighter skinned Aryans around 1500 BCE.
The theory was reinforced by other research over the next 120 years, and became the accepted history of Hinduism, not only in the West but in India.
But many people argue that there is now evidence to show that Muller, and those who followed him, were wrong.
Others, however, believe that the case against the Aryan invation theory is far from conclusive.
The matter remains very controversial and highly politicised. The article below sets out the case made by those who believe that the Aryan invasion theory is seriously flawed.
The case against the Aryan invasion theory
The Aryan invasion theory was based on archaeological, linguistic and ethnological evidence.
Later research, it is argued, has either discredited this evidence, or provided new evidence that combined with the earlier evidence makes other explanations more likely.
Some historians of the area no longer believe that such invasions had such great influence on Indian history. It’s now generally accepted that Indian history shows a continuity of progress from the earliest times to today.
The changes brought to India by other cultures are not denied by modern historians, but they are no longer thought to be a major ingredient in the development of Hinduism.
Dangers of the theory
Opponents of the Aryan invasion theory claim that it denies the Indian origin of India’s predominant culture, and gives the credit for Indian culture to invaders from elsewhere.
They say that it even teaches that some of the most revered books of Hindu scripture are not actually Indian, and it devalues India’s culture by portraying it as less ancient than it actually is.
The theory was not just wrong, some say, but included unacceptably racist ideas:
- it suggested that Indian culture was not a culture in its own right, but a synthesis of elements from other cultures
- it implied that Hinduism was not an authentically Indian religion but the result of cultural imperialism
- it suggested that Indian culture was static, and only changed under outside influences
- it suggested that the dark-skinned Dravidian people of the South of India had got their faith from light-skinned Aryan invaders
- it implied that indigenous people were incapable of creatively developing their faith
- it suggested that indigenous peoples could only acquire new religious and cultural ideas from other races, by invasion or other processes
- it accepted that race was a biologically based concept (rather than, at least in part, a social construct) that provided a sensible way of ranking people in a hierarchy, which provided a partial basis for the caste system
- it provided a basis for racism in the Imperial context by suggesting that the peoples of Northern India were descended from invaders from Europe and so racially closer to the British Raj
- it gave a historical precedent to justify the role and status of the British Raj, who could argue that they were transforming India for the better in the same way that the Aryans had done thousands of years earlier
- it downgraded the intellectual status of India and its people by giving a falsely late date to elements of Indian science and culture
Aryan-Dravidian divide a myth: Study
25 September 2009
THE TIMES OF INDIA
HYDERABAD: The great Indian divide along north-south lines now stands blurred. A pathbreaking study by Harvard and indigenous researchers on ancestral Indian populations says there is a genetic relationship
between all Indians and more importantly, the hitherto believed “fact” that Aryans and Dravidians signify the ancestry of north and south Indians might after all, be a myth.
“This paper rewrites history… there is no north-south divide,” Lalji Singh, former director of the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) and a co-author of the study, said at a press conference here on
Senior CCMB scientist Kumarasamy Thangarajan said there was no truth to the Aryan-Dravidian theory as they came hundreds or thousands of years after the ancestral north and south Indians had settled in India.
The study analysed 500,000 genetic markers across the genomes of 132 individuals from 25 diverse groups from 13 states. All the individuals were from six-language families and traditionally “upper” and
“lower” castes and tribal groups. “The genetics proves that castes grew directly out of tribe-like organizations during the formation of the Indian society,” the study said. Thangarajan noted that it was
impossible to distinguish between castes and tribes since their genetics proved they were not systematically different.
The study was conducted by CCMB scientists in collaboration with researchers at Harvard Medical School,
Harvard School of Public Health and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT. It reveals that the present-day Indian population is a mix of ancient north and south bearing the genomic contributions from two
distinct ancestral populations – the Ancestral North Indian (ANI) and the Ancestral South Indian (ASI).
“The initial settlement took place 65,000 years ago in the Andamans and in ancient south India around the same time, which led to population growth in this part,” said Thangarajan. He added, “At a later stage,
40,000 years ago, the ancient north Indians emerged which in turn led to rise in numbers here. But at some point of time, the ancient north and the ancient south mixed, giving birth to a different set of population.
And that is the population which exists now and there is a genetic relationship between the population within India.”
The study also helps understand why the incidence of genetic diseases among Indians is different from the rest of the world. Singh said that 70% of Indians were burdened with genetic disorders and the study could
help answer why certain conditions restricted themselves to one population. For instance, breast cancer among Parsi women, motor neuron diseases among residents of Tirupati and Chittoor, or sickle cell
anaemia among certain tribes in central India and the North-East can now be understood better, said researchers.
The researchers, who are now keen on exploring whether Eurasians descended from ANI, find in their study that ANIs are related to western Eurasians, while the ASIs do not share any similarity with any other
population across the world. However, researchers said there was no scientific proof of whether Indians went to Europe first or the other way round.
Migratory route of Africans
Between 135,000 and 75,000 years ago, the East-African droughts shrunk the water volume of the lake Malawi by at least 95%, causing migration out of Africa. Which route did they take? Researchers say their study of the tribes of Andaman and Nicobar islands using complete mitochondrial DNA sequences and its comparison those of world populations has led to the theory of a “southern coastal route” of migration from East Africa through India.
This finding is against the prevailing view of a northern route of migration via Middle East, Europe, south-east Asia, Australia and then to India.
The Aryan Invasion – Time To Forget it
The Aryan Race: Time to Forget About It?
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vedic history goes back t 5000 bc by new scientific discoveries. date of mahabharata is proven to 3102 bc.
now that the BJP government is at the center , will the mistakes in text books or the distorted history be corrected ? it is a long shot. but let us hope for the best
Shame, shame, shame upon indian governments, communists rather should say them communal and their british dads who committed a big sin to innocent Indians. Why they don’t jump into some well, when all types of researches cry that arya people were pure Indian natives not invaders. These rascals should have understood that why valmiki ji wrote shri ramayan in Sanskrit. Sanskrit was language of aryans. Did valmiki come from central asia or somewhere else. No, valmiki ji was indian and their language was their own language. If we were two races then why our literature and religion have ever been same. These political scoundrels tell innocent Indians that so called low caste people are Dravidians. In fact, there is no low or up class exists, caste was based on work not birth, which later on misleaded Indian society. Colour of skin changes with climate of region over the passage of centuries. Actually, we indian are very sentimental, we do not understand political motive of political scoundrels. I do not believe that 60000 years ago some Indians migrated from Africa. The reason behind this is that evidences of ramayan which brings indian history back to lacs of years as ramsetu – 1750000 years old. There are other evidence of srikrishna – dwaarka in the sea etc. We should be thankful to NASA as well, who brought the fact into the light that thousands of years back river saraswati got dried upon whose banks holy vedas were composed. Saraswati was not flowing in the Europe, can not these wicked – sinful understand this?
Now, question is who will rewrite history books of Great India, because these british puppets will hamper any progress in this regard. But the moment, will come definitely, when truth will be on the pages of the history books and our next generations will not waste their energy and time to prove the things which had already been proved. SATYE MEV JAYTE. Either by approaching court or through janandolan, we will have to fix our history based on truth not on political agendas to divide indian society.
infact the word aryan itself should be scrapped. aryan is a word meant for noble and peace loving urban people. Which well meant the people from indus valley ciilization.
The word should be hindu’s a.k.a people from the indus valley civilization.
One of the most important point of ogigin of most of the great things,
peace loving religions like hinduism, and related buddhism, jainism etc;literature, grammer, and one of the base to most of the common words used around this world, ayurveda, yoga, contributions to mathematics and many more.
its to bad that the history books in india were crap and still are.
The only thing that this proves is the current inhabitants have sold out their history and heritage for a small thing like being included as a group of blue eyes blonde people with chisled body. The only mythological characted in hinduism that had these qualities was ravana.
In light of latest Gene Mapping and other evidences human history is definately much older than what has been taught to us.The biggest loophole in ancient history was, what so called intelligent humans were doing between 90,000 years ago till 2000-1500BC after stepping out of Africa. ?Latest gene mapping has proved beyond doubt that first human settlers out of Africa were in India and from there they spread Eastward, North-Eastward & North-Westward. There are strong evidences found of Idol worship and Hindu dieties in most ancient civilzations. Definately Aryans or their ancestors were Indians and spread all over the world, rather than inward settlers from Asia minor. If Aryan invasion happenned from Asia minor, they must have left Sanskrit literatures outside India. Greatest Indian Epics like Ramayana & Mahabharats were debunked and sacrificed to justify Aryan Invasion theory and to establish superiority of Western religions. New Archeological discoveries off Dwaraka has established that there are at least 3-4 layers of ancient Dwaraka sunk beneath sea. Biggest promoters and believers of Aryan Invasion theory are inside India (Pseudo secularists and liberals) who dont want to accpet existance of Hindu India. Histroy should be seen in light of facts and not fictions. Believe me or not in next 200 years Histroy books will mention Ancient Hindus in due respect they deserve. To sum up, First grammer was written 500BC in India by Panini. So called classical Western languages Latin or greek or modern European languages could not even conceived the idea of grammer as late as 1600-1700AD and that too only after studying Panini’s work. Biggest irony of history is that these same people founded and advocated Aryan Invasion theory on linguistic basis primariliy.
Hinduism is perhaps the oldest continuing religion in the world, with sacred texts estimated to date back to 3000 B.C. Many of its traditions have lasted for eons, with origins lost in time. A Hindu wedding, one of the most sacred of rites, incorporates many of these timeless rituals and customs. In ages past, these traditions and rituals would extend over several days, but in today’s hectic society, such a schedule is difficult to accommodate. Today, many of these traditions are performed the night before and the day of the wedding ceremony. The Hindu ceremony centers not just on the bride, but celebrates the coming together of two families. To illustrate this theme, many customs involve both families..
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The url that we had quoted from BBC seems to be diverted to a new url. For the complete document that was published in bbc is also at http://indiapride.org/pipermail/prideindia_indiapride.org/2009-January/000002.html
I want to see BBC report admitted on 6 October, 2005 but I am not able to find. These new links are not working. I had already seen the link given at the top but that is very little information. Kindly share the full report if you have. Thanks
This is completely true. Even in my 6th grade history textbook I can see why this theory is flawed. The main focus is how the Aryans improved India sooo much, how they had writing, farm tools, language, etc. It is basically saying that India would not be the civilization it was without the Aryans. I don’t see why the books have not been changed.
The myth of AIT has not allowed Indian Superiority over other Western culture, to take its due place. Also, there is related question of Indo-European languages, where Sanskrit should have been accepted as the most ancient language, which is mother of all Indo European Group of languages.
Our history needs to be corrected urgently as pointed out by Sunil in his comment of 7 Nov 2007; otherwise we will keep teaching grossly incorrect history to generations of our people including our administrators.
The superiority question is actually not very relevant to AIT. It is the knowledge system that matters and not chronology. The question of IE languages is also to be seen differently from Indian viewpoint. The scientific sequence of observation-abstraction-generalization-refinement works the same for any synthesis. So even the language evolves that way. The specific always derives from the general, but that does not always mean the specifics evolved from the general in the chronological process of discovery. The sense in which Hindus say Sanskrit is the mother of all languages is also not really chronological but in this sense. So to apply that as a historic claim that all IE languages developed from Sanskrit is not quite logical.
if AIT is true then why are hindu scriptures like vedas,sanskrit,hinduism,hindu epics and hindu culture and hindu tradition are not found in any other part of the world.there are no evidences in europe or in middle east of such migrations and there is no mention of europe or middle east in vedas,upanishads or scriptures e.t.c the most western region mentioned is gandhara(modern day afghanistan) as shakuni’s kingdom.there are no mention of any rivers.in ancient epics there are no mention of indus too,but there are lot of praises of river saraswati(flowed in present day pakistan and north west india).it dried due to movement of tectonic plates in probably in 3000 bc.and harappa and mohenjadaro are creations of ancient indians(aryans).there was no aryans or dravidians but only one tribe that is indians(bharath). refer this website : http://www.hitxp.com/articles/history/myth-aryan-invasion-theory/
“Cellular Molecular Biology research debunks Aryan Invasion theory”
An inter-continental research in cellular molecular biology has debunked the Aryan invasion theory. This is a major setback to the advocates of the ‘Aryan Invasion’ theory and the elements who used and using the propaganda of Aryan-Dravidian conflict for the division through confusion in the Indian social psyche.
The so called Aryan Dravidian Theory which used for ‘Divide and Convert’ policy has been exposed by this fresh Genetic research conducted by the The American Society of Human Genetics.
The research, ‘Shared and Unique Components of Human Population Structure and Genome-Wide Signals of Positive Selection in South Asia’ is conducted by a team of 15 scientists which includes four Indian scientists. The findings of a three-year has been published by American Journal of Human Genetics in its issue dated December 9.
Research Team member Prof Lalji Singh, vice-chancellor, Banaras Hindu University, has commented that the research has conclusively proved that there never existed any Aryans or Dravidians in the Indian sub continent. The Aryan-Dravidian classification was nothing but a misinformation campaign carried out by people with vested interests.
The study effectively puts to rest the argument that south Indians are Dravidians and were driven to the peninsula by Aryans who invaded North India,” said Prof Singh, a molecular biologist and former chief of Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad.
According to Dr Gyaneshwer Chaubey, Estonian Biocentre, Tartu, Estonia, who was another Indian member of the team, the leaders of Dravidian political parties may have to find another answer for their raison d’�tre. “We have proved that people all over India have common genetic traits and origin. All Indians have the same DNA structure. No foreign genes or DNA has entered the Indian mainstream in the last 60,000 years,” Dr Chaubey said.
Dr Chaubey had proved in 2009 itself that the Aryan invasion theory is garbage. “That was based on low resolution genetic markers. This time we have used autosomes, which mean all major 23 chromosomes, for our studies. The decoding of human genome and other advances in this area help us in unraveling the ancestry in 60,000 years,” he explained.
“We have to find out the credentials of the authors of this research paper and their hidden agenda. In Tamil Nadu, the Dravidian and Aryan ties are inter-related. The Dalits in our land are the descendents of the Dravidian Brahmins who were pushed to the lowest strata of society by the Aryans,” claimed Shankaran.
According to Prof Singh, Dr Chaubey, and Dr Kumarasamy Thangaraj, another member of the team, the findings disprove the caste theory prevailing in India. Interestingly, the team found that instead of Aryan invasion, it was Indians who moved from the subcontinent to Europe. “That’s the reason behind the findings of the same genetic traits in Eurasiain regions,” said Dr Thangaraj, senior scientist, CCMB.
“Africans came to India through Central Asia during 80,000 to 60,000 BCE and they moved to Europe sometime around 30,000 BCE.
The Indian Vedic literature and the epics are all silent about the Aryan-Dravidian conflict,” said Dr S Kalyanaraman, a proponent of the Saraswati civilization which developed along the banks of the now invisible River Saraswati.
The report states that, some heuristic interpretations of the ancestry proportions palette in terms of past migrations seem too obvious to be ignored. For example, it was first suggested by the German Orientalist Max M�ller that ca. 3,500 years ago a dramatic migration of Indo-European speakers from Central Asia (the putative Indo Aryan migration) played a key role in shaping contemporary South Asian populations and was responsible for the introduction of the Indo-European language family and the caste system in India. Thus, the report totally denies most sham Aryan Invasion Theory which was advocated by the British rulers, Christian Missionaries and contemporary South Indian Political parties and ideologues.
However, the research has identified a cline of Indian populations toward Europe with no corresponding cline within the Europeans.
The alleged propaganda of ‘Aryan Invasion and Conflict of Aryans with Dravidians’ is widely used in India as a tool to divide the Indian Society for years. Michel Danino, in his ‘The Invasion That Never Was’ has already stated that “Since the nineteenth century, India’s ancient history from Vedic times and the true content of the Veda have both been distorted by a blinkered and unsympathetic scholarship. British rulers, European scholars and missionaries combined in a campaign to disparage the roots of Indian civilization, and used the wholly groundless Aryan Invasion theory to sow seeds of division in the Indian society – “divide and rule,” But also “divide and convert.” The same fallacies continue to be promoted today.”
Danino further comments that, unfortunately, many of the wounds the Aryan invasion theory inflicted on Indian society are still painfully open today, nurtured as they have been by missionaries, Marxist historians and politicians, who together have made sure that divisions between castes have been sharpening rather than subsiding – for the simple reason that without such divisions they would all be out of business.
The fresh research has played a great role which examines the birth of the Arya-Dravid myth and its misuses. The American Society of Human Genetics with the help of cellular molecular biology has thrown fresh look at the ‘Invasion theory’ in the light of its recent scientific evidence and showed how it now stands overwhelmingly disproved.
Courtesy: ibtl – http://www.ibtl.in/news/exclusive/1625/aryan-invasion-theory-used-for-divide-and-convert-:-exposed-by-fresh-genetic-research
bharat’s history is even older than all these theories .even the name itself is older than these theories. BHARAT WHOSE BOUNDARIES was from afganistann to rangoon even furthest .hence all the fanatic theories which are dividing bharat on regional bases are proved wrong. thtas it.
AIT or aryan invasion theory has been proved wrong by many established historians around the world including Indians….fail to understand why the history books are not being re-written and corrected with the latest findings.
There is a case that some of the Indian historians of great importance who are involved in writing scores of books had obtained their doctorates by submitting various thesis on the AIT in its favour and therefore decline to accept the shift. These are the real culprits denying India and her people a credible history which is proudly and indegenously ours.
Mr. Sujay Rao,
The idea of literary-common usage difference is well known and well taken. However, applying it to Prakrit-Sanskrit may not be tenable for multiple reasons –
1. Prakrit in cases has tighter rules than Sanskrit itself, which makes it no less granthika/literary.
2. No common usage language/vyavaharika survives for such a long time without transformation. The idiom, meaning, usage everything would change over time, which precisely is the reason why one would choose a granthika version of a language for recording “permanent knowledge” of his society. And the very fact that people are debating Prakrit today, shows they have concrete awareness of its structure and usage, and that it must be more than a common usage language.
Bauddhas purposely used Pali as that was the “non-scholarly” language at that time, and that is more difficult to construct and understand, except from some works. Simply put, the common usage languages of ancient past are beyond construction today.
All said and done, the Sanskrit-Prakrit-Pali… has a longer continuation and neither the so-called Aryan nor the so-called Dravidian languages fall outside it.
Partial Amnesia !! This is what the foolish leftists suffer from these days when their misbeliefs of HIndu History are being annihilated by the latest scientific discoveries, be it regarding the AIT or the acceptance of Yoga or the Hindu Family system all over the world. This is just an iota of Hindu Power. Truth cannot be brushed under the carpet by these fools.
The FACT IS THAT COMMUNISM IS A DEAD HORSE !!
There was a political reply to the politics behind AIT – that only a racist imagines a racial invasion and AIT can only be imagined by the racist westerners. However the natural choice of anti-Hindus would be to buy such theories and propagate them – communists and dravidianists for instance.
And the domination theory is equally flawed – just because you have two families grammar and languages you have two cultures and two peoples? Has anyone of these separation champions noted the most fundamental fact of Indian languages that their grammars are at syllable and not word level, and that this is in contrast with all other “IE” aryan languages?
All said and done, these folks cannot digest the fact that their two civilization, domination, replacement theory is proving out to be politically motivated and that such motivation is getting more exposed, the more they try to invent alternate theories to somehow uphold that “aryans” are of non-Indian origin and culturally incompatible with “dravidians”.
Fact is that both these languages are inherently Indian – for a culture that has retained so much of diversity, having diversity in language is but natural. One does not have to “explain” it! After all, let someone explain the diversity in cultural units and practices of India – then he will understand that tolerance and diversity are inherent and do not need to be explained, but to be learned and understood from the Vedic culture.
From where did you get the nonsense that caste is an aggressive institution? Are you aware of the fact that the identities of several groups are to be seen in India because of the inherently tolerant system created by caste? Can you see that the Jews, Parsis etc who are given shelter in India because of tolerance inherent in caste? On the other hand, can you see that world over, Islam, Christianity, Communism have created havoc while pretending to be caste-less? Can you see that there were *no caste conflicts* in India before the British ventured?
However, its funny to see anti-Hindus pretend that AIT was always a lie, because they are the ones who really kept giving air to such theories till date.
No, it is not the Vedic scholars who are trying to beat a dead horse. Fact is that this theory still haunts Indian school text books and common man’s understanding of history.
The need is to correct the lies written in textbooks, and since the Communist dominated history departments of Indian Universities are reluctant to do that, private publication and such blogs are the only way the common man gets any correct information.
As for truth, it is not substandard works like that of Witzel or Farmer that take you to truth. It is *scholarly* works of people who understand the Veda that take you to the truth about Vedic civilization – Shrikant Talageri for instance.
I support you. But the only correction from my side is that the history being included in the general studies paper for all civil services aspirants, they also study the same AIT. So the entire current administration believes in the same(there might be few exceptions) and unless we correct the syllabus we will have the top positions in our country believe in the same proven wrong. I had to argue a lot with my history lecturer and had to point to many web related sources to make my point strong atleast.
Not only that, the propagants of AIT till now not issued a statement against it till now at the least in scholarly discussions also. I feel that it is not enough that we realise the truth but the truth should be propagated to general public and pride should be instilled among the masses that we are one nation.
Here I would like to pint out the following links
AIT ( ‘Aryan Invasion Theory ‘ is a dead horse.In scholarly discussions it does not find a place. It is the acculturation theory that is being discussed by the historians, and linguists.Only the Vedic scholars want to keep it alive, to fool the people, as though the fact was discovered by them, this morning! These vedic scholars are Whipping a dead horse. To quote from above”It’s now generally accepted that Indian history shows a continuity of progress from the earliest times to today” is an attempt to fool the innocent.Did any of the comments / scholarly writing referred to in the above discussion cite the book ‘The deciphered Indus Script’ by N.Jha and N.S.Rajaram.Those who are interested in knowing the truth Pl. log on to:
More of it later.
U must be really sad to see those pseudo elites defrauded. Philology is not scientific u tool. Its a make belief fantasy topic similar to Tolkien when he created a language for a non exustant race of elves thinking these fairies like u would believe his fantasy.
Ait was always a hypothesis,a flawed theory now in hindsight.But Aryanists are still arguing as if the Culture call it Gandarva,or misnomered Aryan,really
Bharatian culture never migrated,struggled and replaced an older Negrito/Dravidian,included sino/naga culture in the the northwest.Even all
socalled Dravidian culture proved linguistically and otherwise now in south of
from Kedars to others are ever present reminder of te truth of ancient India.Now dominated by same group in Aryan/iran as india which can account for all the aggressive anti-autoctone instutitions such as vcaste and untouchabilty which find noting about in in pre neolithic and early post neolithic India.
why do you guys keep attacking a half-imaginary theory?
Here is my complete , comprehensive solution to the so-called Aryan problem
Part one is a high level overview. Part two is much more interesting
This is one of the longest research papers published in a peer-reviewed journal since independance.
Part 2 is particularly important
Links to the journal
Part one http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1324506
Part Two http://ssrn.com/abstract=1541822
The world has started realising the truth. I can understand how fanatic Max Muller should have been if he ruthlessly gave such a theory damaging the Glory of this country? Perhaps, had this theory not created by these people, there wouldnt have any holocast in the name of superior race. What a price mankind had to give due to this man’s religious fundamentalism?